Nurse’s Perspective for Survival, by L.S.

As a nurse who believes in making preparations for long-term survival, it has come to my attention that there are a few simple preventive healthcare measures that everyone should consider. However, obtaining important preventive healthcare and taking general measures related to maintaining general health is often overlooked or delayed. The focused attention to the more obvious important prepping activities often wins out. Having enough food, water, or a safe, sheltered environment are examples

Tetanus Vaccine

My favorite approach to staying healthy is a more naturopathic way. I must admit that I am not a strong advocate of most vaccines in general. This is due to a variety of chemicals that are added into vaccines. This has recorded side effects in some vaccines after administration. However, there is one particular vaccination that I do believe is important to obtain in emergency preparation. This is the tetanus vaccination.

Keep in mind that in an emergency situation, daily routines will most likely be interrupted. Many may find themselves in a fight or flight mode where they are engaging in unplanned, challenging physical activities. As a result, people taken by surprise in an emergency situation can become more susceptible to accidents. One preventive healthcare measure to obtain prior to a survival emergency situation is to keep up-to-date on the tetanus vaccination.

Tetanus (Lockjaw) is a serious disease that enters the body through cuts, scratches, and wounds. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the disease of tetanus kills 1 out of 10 people, even with the best medical care (Td, CDC Vaccine Information Statement, Published 2/24/15). Obtain a tetanus vaccination  at least once every 10 years. I have been a nurse for several years now and the most severe side effect that I have seen after receiving the current tetanus vaccination is injection site discomfort, redness, and occasional swelling at the injection site for a minimal amount of time. In my opinion, if one does not have specific allergies to this particular vaccine, the benefits of receiving the tetanus vaccination far outweigh any concerns for side effects, especially for people who are at high risk for injuries, cuts, burns, or puncture wounds.

Dental Hygiene

In an emergency scenario, our diets may change. Suddenly we find ourselves eating more nuts, dried fruits, and other dehydrated, harder to chew food products, such a beef jerky. In a situation like this, if dental hygiene has been ignored with subsequent consequences, such as oral abscesses, bacterial infections, and cavities, the ability to properly consume a more challenging, rigorous diet may further compromise the teeth and impede the ability to ingest proper amounts of nutrition in a time when it is desperately needed. Bacterial infections starting with compromised teeth can lead to diseased gums and very serious blood infections throughout the body, creating a medical emergency situation that may be difficult to resolve in the survival mode.

Preventative Dental Care

To prevent untimely dental emergencies, it is important to keep up with dental care on a routine basis now. You are then as prepared as possible for a time when dental care may not be available for an unspecified time frame. Keep in mind that maintaining good dental health is an ongoing process. Engaging in preventive dental healthcare activities, such as flossing the teeth, receiving periodic dental cleanings, and getting exams from your dentist is less expensive than waiting until serious problems arise or bacterial diseases have reached root of the teeth where it compromises the gums.

Vitamin C

In addition to obtaining routine dental care, it is also imperative to consume adequate amounts of vitamin C. The disease of scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C. This leads to bleeding gums and gum disease with eventual loss of teeth. It is important to make sure that proper consumption of vitamin C is an ongoing process. When an emergency situation actually arises, the gums and teeth are then in the best possible condition. In a survival emergency, the availability of fresh citrus fruit may not be readily available for a long time. Vitamin C supplements should also be at the top of list for nutritional prepping purposes to provide the diet with enough of this nutrient to keep the gums and teeth in the best possible condition. Information on the proper intake of daily vitamin C supplements is available at nutritional health food stores.

Prescription Drugs

Keeping available drug prescriptions filled and on hand is often discussed by those who prep for emergency survival. However, the ability to keep adequate supplies of medically prescribed drugs on hand now for long-term use later is difficult. One reason  is that physicians usually don’t provide refills on drug prescriptions to last any longer than three to six months. So the need to plan for the future with necessary prescription drug alternatives in a survival scenario may require some creativity.


Every first aid kit should contain a generous supply of an easily available drug called aspirin (acetylsalicylic). You can purchase Aspirin in abundance now without a prescription. Store it for survival purposes as needed later. Aspirin in the dose of 81mg would be in high demand in a survival mode situation for its pain relieving and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition to this, it is well documented that many physicians also prescribe this inexpensive, over-the-counter drug. It is used as a blood thinning agent in the primary prevention of heart attacks and strokes. Seniors and those who are high risk for these types of health related issues benefit the most. When purchasing aspirin, it is important to buy the enteric-coated version of aspirin to protect the lining of the intestinal tract from ulcer formations.

Herb and Folk Medicine

Since many traditional drugs and treatments used in physical trauma situations would not be available after a life altering survival emergency, over time the use of herbs, folk medicine, and alternative means of keeping healthy will also become popular. As a result, preparing for an uncertain future dealing with unforeseen healthcare situations is tough. It is advisable to learn now about the herbs and plants that are available in your area. Learn about their associated healing properties for proper use.

For healthcare emergency preparation, it is vitally important to buy a first aid book and read it now. Better yet, enroll in a first-aid class before a crisis situation arises. You must have a basic knowledge of first aid treatments and procedures. Sitting down to initially read your book when a healthcare crisis occurs in the future will waste valuable time. You are wasting valuable time reading instructions rather than assisting the victim in an emergency. Waiting to read presents a less effective outcome.

Glasses and Eyegass Repair Kit

I have heard it said that the eyes are the windows to the soul. In an emergency situation proper vision is the first gateway to survival. People who prep often discuss the need to have an extra pair of reading and distant vision glasses on hand. However, I do not hear much discussion about keeping an eyeglass repair kit available in one’s emergency pack with a variety of miniature screws and tools for repairing eyeglass hinges. If you are on a tight budget and cannot afford to buy back-up pairs of eye glasses it is essential to buy a small magnifying glass with a high resolution. Keep it in your prepping kit for those tiny but necessary repair jobs.

Saline Eye Wash

In addition too, it is highly advisable to keep a sufficient amount of saline eye wash on hand for those unforeseen accidents or incidences where the eyes are exposed to dirt, dust, or particles that enter the eyes with the potential to cause eye infections in future emergency situations. Without immediate and proper cleansing of the eyes under circumstances like this, the foreign body can lead to a problem where antibiotics are necessary. In a future emergency, the specific antibiotics needed for treatment may not be available.

Foot Care

Foot care is one area of prepping that is not addressed enough. In an emergency situation that could include the necessity of having to flee one’s location on foot, the condition of the feet can determine the success of this endeavor. A foot contains 26 bones, 33 joints, more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments, and well over 200,000 sweat glands. The feet are in charge of transportation from one physical location to another. They have the very important task of supporting the entire body. Calluses, bunions, athlete’s foot, corns, painful ingrown toenails, and a number of other foot related health conditions can impede the evacuation to safety.

If you currently have foot problems of any kind, please see your local podiatrist. Maintain the best possible general foot health at all times so that you are prepared for future survival. Ankle injuries are not uncommon when you are on the run. Included in prepping, it is important to remember to keep a good pair of hiking boots or sporting foot wear handy that provide adequate ankle support. Don’t forget to include in your first aid kit ace bandages in varying sizes for supporting compromised ankles, which are the gateways to the feet!

Beyond having sufficient food, water, and shelter, these simple preventive healthcare measures for preparation are of great benefit for increasing the odds of survival in many emergency situations.

SurvivalBlog Writing Contest

This has been another entry for Round 70 of the SurvivalBlog non-fiction writing contest. The nearly $11,000 worth of prizes for this round include:

First Prize:

  1. A $3000 gift certificate towards a Sol-Ark Solar Generator from Veteran owned Portable Solar LLC. The only EMP Hardened Solar Generator System available to the public.
  2. A Gunsite Academy Three Day Course Certificate that is good for any one, two, or three day course (a $1,195 value),
  3. A course certificate from onPoint Tactical for the prize winner’s choice of three-day civilian courses, excluding those restricted for military or government teams. Three day onPoint courses normally cost $795,
  4. DRD Tactical is providing a 5.56 NATO QD Billet upper with a hammer forged, chrome-lined barrel and a hard case to go with your own AR lower. It will allow any standard AR-type rifle to have a quick change barrel, which can be assembled in less than one minute without the use of any tools and a compact carry capability in a hard case or 3-day pack (an $1,100 value),
  5. An infrared sensor/imaging camouflage shelter from Snakebite Tactical in Eureka, Montana (A $350+ value),
  6. Two cases of Mountain House freeze-dried assorted entrees in #10 cans, courtesy of Ready Made Resources (a $350 value),
  7. A $250 gift certificate good for any product from Sunflower Ammo,
  8. Two cases of Meals, Ready to Eat (MREs), courtesy of (a $180 value).

Second Prize:

  1. A Model 175 Series Solar Generator provided by Quantum Harvest LLC (a $439 value),
  2. A Glock form factor SIRT laser training pistol and a SIRT AR-15/M4 Laser Training Bolt, courtesy of Next Level Training, which have a combined retail value of $589,
  3. A gift certificate for any two or three-day class from Max Velocity Tactical (a $600 value),
  4. A transferable certificate for a two-day Ultimate Bug Out Course from Florida Firearms Training (a $400 value),
  5. A Trekker IV™ Four-Person Emergency Kit from Emergency Essentials (a $250 value),
  6. A $200 gift certificate good towards any books published by,
  7. A pre-selected assortment of military surplus gear from CJL Enterprize (a $300 value),
  8. RepackBox is providing a $300 gift certificate to their site, and
  9. American Gunsmithing Institute (AGI) is providing a $300 certificate good towards any of their DVD training courses.

Third Prize:

  1. A Royal Berkey water filter, courtesy of Directive 21 (a $275 value),
  2. A custom made Sage Grouse model utility/field knife from custom knife-maker Jon Kelly Designs, of Eureka, Montana,
  3. A large handmade clothes drying rack, a washboard, and a Homesteading for Beginners DVD, all courtesy of The Homestead Store, with a combined value of $206,
  4. Expanded sets of both washable feminine pads and liners, donated by Naturally Cozy (a $185 retail value),
  5. Two Super Survival Pack seed collections, a $150 value, courtesy of Seed for Security, LLC,
  6. Mayflower Trading is donating a $200 gift certificate for homesteading appliances,
  7. Montie Gear is donating a Y-Shot Slingshot and a $125 Montie gear Gift certificate.,
  8. Two 1,000-foot spools of full mil-spec U.S.-made 750 paracord (in-stock colors only) from (a $240 value), and

Round 70 ends on May 31st, so get busy writing and e-mail us your entry. Remember that there is a 1,500-word minimum, and that articles on practical “how to” skills for survival have an advantage in the judging.


  1. Re reading glasses – beyond “an extra pair”, I recommend storing at least half-dozen in your current strength, as accidents and loss are likely to quickly deplete your inventory.

    Also, keep a few in higher strengths; should you survive long enough after SHTF, your eyes may weaken with age, poor nutrition, etc. so that you will need them.

    Finally, reading glasses are small-volume, high-value items ideal for barter.

  2. (I forgot to add re reading glasses)

    As barter items, reading glasses are still cheap! You can get them at the dollar store for, yes, one dollar each.

    1. Bobcat-Prepper
      Great point. One can buy reasonably priced over the counter reading glasses at most department stores and sometimes even at the dollar store. For distant vision (near sighted) or more complicated eye issues related to vision where it would be crucial to see at different ranges, more expensive prescription eye glasses, along with having at least a second, back-up pair for this consideration should be included in prepping preparations.

    2. I was just going to recommend the dollar store glasses. I have worn them for several years and have many extras stashed where I might need them.

  3. I am also a nurse-for over 30 yrs. I am in agreement with everything in this vital article, in fact I am very impressed with this nurse’s grasp of relevent issues that a survivalist faces. The information was thorough, accurate, non sensational, scientifically and medically sound and presented in a valuble well thought out way with helpful methods suggested to prepare for issues that are often overlooked or not mentioned in other articles I’ve read in the past. Excellent, interesting information that I plan on implementing now in my own preparedness plans. Thank you!

  4. Probiotics, research them and see what you think. Kombucha, kimchi, kefir, fermented vegetables etc… I believe they may save lives in a SHTF situation. They are easy, if you stock the supplies.

    1. Curtiss
      Thank you for your response.
      Probiotics are extremely important for prepping and also for every day use. Probiotics strengthen the intestinal tract by balancing the intestinal flora, to reduce the risks of diarrhea and other health issues related due to intestinal problems via an unbalanced intestinal environment. I use the refrigerated versions on a daily basis now and when I do so, my IBS issues are greatly lessened. For prepping purposes, obviously it is necessary to use non-refrigerated products and some of these work well. Costco carries different lines of probiotics at reasonable prices, or they can be obtain at most health food stores.

  5. In an environment where ready medical care is not available I think we might expect to see an upsurge in disease and illnesses we don’t commonly face these days as well. While you can’t prepare against everything, you might want to consider getting vaccinated against Typhoid, Cholera, Hepatitis A & B, Meningitis, and Yellow Fever (if you live in a coastal area prone to it).

    1. Hello Sara
      Some folks may want to pursue these vaccines as a personal choice. I’ve worked in the travel healthcare industry for many years and in doing so, I have keep my eyes focused on where disease outbreaks are occurring. Since Yellow Fever is a mosquitoe related disease, it is possible for this disease to migrate to the United States in the future like other mosquitoes that carry diseases such as ZIKA or West Nile Virus. However right now, Yellow Fever is found in places like Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, parts of South America (amazons) and Africa. The CDC publishes locations where Yellow Fever is found and the United States is currently not one of these regions. However, folks living outside the United States, or people who plan to leave the US may find the current locations noted by the CDC to be quite useful. The mosquitoes that carry Yellow Fever thrive in lower altitudes, near fresh water lakes, streams and rivers(e.g. Amazons). The mosquitoes that carry the disease of Yellow Fever are not fans of salt water.

      1. Just as an FYI. Yellow Fever and Malaria killed many of the early settlers in the State of Michigan in the early 1800s. In a world fallen apart you could expect both of these diseases to make a comeback anywhere that mosquitoes like to breed…

  6. Over the years I have collected many braces for many parts of the body for myself (I am 75). These include: 1. Several knee braces in several different sizes and strength. 2. Both left and right boots along with sock liners. 3. Ankle braces after spraining ankles. 4. Hand braces both left and right. 5. Hand compression gloves.
    Just a idea for others who might want to start their collection.

  7. Great article with some very helpful information. I wouldn’t have even thought about foot care and hiking boots…will be making a purchase asap!

  8. I particularly like the tip for saline eye wash! Never would have thought of that. I suppose a small mirror might also be useful in removing objects from the eye.

    Foot care is perhaps a bigger issue than some might imagine. Especially if you are on the run, or just needing to be outdoors daily in all weather. Here’s a for instance. I am regularly outdoors for 6 or more hours per day. Last week we had very heavy rain all day. My fancy Gore-Tex lined waterproof boots failed in a few spots and the boots quickly became soaked inside. I had them on for 9 hours. Very uncomfortable. But more important this could lead to trench foot. In addition, I found out that the once Gore-Tex lined boots are breached they take a much longer time to dry out. I also then had to then treat the boot interiors for bacterial and mold buildup.

    Now I’m not sure if “waterproof” boots are in fact a good prep item. When we had heavy rains yesterday, I instead wore light sneakers and heavy wool socks- which, of course, soaked through immediately. But the socks
    continued to insulate in 50 degree weather and the sneakers dried out much more quickly.

  9. Whether you have a prescription or not everyone should have a pair or two of safety glasses. Both in clear and sunglasses. If you have prescription glasses I would suggest that you look into getting them in safety glasses, the prescription safety glasses have better frames and better lenses and they will hold up better to abuse. They are a little more expensive than a regular prescription, but if your company that you work for requires safety glasses they may have a program set up to where you can get prescription safety glasses at a discount, Worth checking into. You can find regular safety glasses it will fit over normal glasses they’re not the most comfortable but they do work. If you need readers you can get safety glasses with built in magnification in whatever power you might need.

  10. an inexpensive treatment for ingrown toenails is to cut a v in the top of the nail to relieve pressure .It works. My kids were on a trip to Chine when one of the members in their group was in great pain due to an infected ingrown nail. This cure worked for him and has worked for me.

    1. Sis
      you are correct (this really works!!). I had a friend that had repeated ingrown toe nails. This problem stopped when he started cutting a V at the top center of his toe nails. I think that the space between the V causes the corners of the toenails (where ingrown problems occur) to grow towards the V versus into the tender tissues at the top corners of the toe nails.

  11. Dear LS,
    Yellow Fever isn’t currently a problem in the US, but it used to be so common in the lowlands around Savannah and Charlestown that folks who could afford to do so would typically go stay somewhere else during the most prone months.

    Once we have no organized mosquito abatement program I expect it might just make a come back.

    1. Anonymous
      You, (and Sara) are correct regarding an upsurge of diseases, and mosquitoe related diseases (such as YF) when medical services and abatement programs are gone. It’s interesting because even with fairly sophisticated abatement programs within the US right now, we’re still seeing an upsurge of various diseases caused by newer invader mosquitoes such as West Nile and Zika virus. God help us if Yellow Fever returned to the US in a massive epidemic because the mortality rate is very high with YF (according to the CDC, up to 50 percent in serious cases).

  12. LS,

    Yellow Fever isn’t commonly found in the US these days thanks to excellent modern mosquito abatement methods, but it used to be so bad around Charleston and Savannah that folks who could afford to would close up their homes and go someplace else for the summers.

    If public health programs such as mosquito abatement programs were to be disrupted it could make a return. My point is we need to think about some of the diseases and illnesses that could very well make a come back if there’s a breakdown in services that maintain cleanliness, pest control, and waste removal.

    1. Sara
      Your initial post didn’t share your concerns regarding mosquito abatement programs, only the unavailability of medical care in an emergency situation and your stated consideration for noted vaccines and this is where I was coming from in terms of Yellow Fever not being an issue in the US right now. Your subsequent posts clarify your position/concerns and I do understand what you’re saying and agree wholeheartedly with you. Any mosquitoe related disease has the potential to be a problem in the US, especially in an emergency situation where protective systems are disrupted. Thank you!

  13. Don’t forget an antidiarrheal! Lack of refrigeration and the possible need to eat questionable food can set you up for one of the leading causes of death on Earth!

  14. I think an anti fungal spray like Tinactin would be wise to store in depth. People would not be showering daily, hygiene would be poor at best. Athlete’s foot and jock itch are serious concerns. A few cans could really stave off the pain and discomfort for a lot of people for a long time. Drop a twenty and buy a few cans. Someone will be glad you did.

    1. I have had a life long problem with athlete’s foot and jock itch. I use Desenex powder after every shower for athlete’s foot and Clotrimazole cream for jock itch is very inexpensive at Walmart in their Equate brand. Pretty easy to stock up on those items now.

  15. The author’s comment about the importance of Vitamin C was good, but the advice to buy it at a health food store would not work in a prolonged situation.

    I tried collecting rose hips, and making a powder out of them, having often read what a good source of Vitamin C they are. I was planning to put in a bunch of Rugosa roses for that purpose.

    Yipes. What a complicated, nasty mess that was. Rose hips have masses of horrid, irritating little hairs inside that you have to get rid of, and this is no easy job. I finally dumped the whole mess. It’s better than dying of scurvy (slow and painful), but there have got to be more user-friendly sources.

    Can any of your readers WHO HAVE PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OF USING THEM suggest some good sources of Vitamin C that can be stored through the winter? Especially ones that are portable, in case of the need for sudden travel.

    1. Hi Janet,

      Yes, rose hips are a messy endeavor. The only option to make the task even moderately tolerable is to spread some newspapers on a picnic table in the shade and have a friend join you. (Ideally , choose someone who will forgive you for roping them into this task!) Other than that, use a grapefruit spoon (with sharp edges) to scoop the hairs out of the middle of the rose hips. A better alternative is to grow/store a variety of berries with high vitamin C content — strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, aronia berries, and blueberries are a good start. Check with your local county extension agent to determine what other native berry bushes grow in your area. Also, don’t forget that chili peppers and bell peppers have a high vitamin C content, as does kale, guava, orange, pineapple and mango. A quick internet search will tell you (1) what they look like, (2) what their vitamin content is and (3) how to store them. I

  16. As a young man, I used to have a chronic problem with my big toenail getting ingrown The V Notch does work, but it takes patience while waiting for the nail to grow together. Toenails take a long time to grow.. After one particular episode of ingrown toenail torture. I got fed up and frustrated with the agony and decided to solve the problem myself. I purchased a pair of dykes, specifically made for toenails, and a bottle of whiskey.

    After downing a fair amount of the liquid courage, I cut down the side of my toenail and removed the the portion of nail that was causing me so much trouble for so many years… I must have done it right because I have never had a problem after that. The removed portion grew back straight and I have never had a problem since.
    I certainly don’t recommend following my path to relief, as complications and infection could have made it worse. But back then, your only option was make a doctors appointment weeks out, or go to the ER.

    1. Lo
      The difference between you and doc is that he would have done near the same procedure but without the whiskey….You’re a brave man!
      I guess it would be appropriate to remind folks to keep adequate amounts of hydrogen peroxide on hand for cleaning wounds and for purifying water in a pinch (1/8 cup to one gallon H20). Thank you, Lora

      1. Another point that many don’t realize, once opened, hydrogen peroxide has a pretty short shelf life. If stocking up, I’d suggest buying smaller containers to limit waste.

  17. Hello Janet
    For people who are gathering supplies for shorter term survival (2-3 years) and they aren’t interested in exploring other alternatives, buying back-up Vitamin C supplements via a health food store or other reliable provider is probably the best bet for this kind of prepper. Vitamin C can be purchased in tablet, softgels or powder. I have all three formats with some having expiration dates, not until Jan. 2019. In answer to your question regarding other good sources of Vitamin C that a person can store through the winter, freeze dried or dehydrated oranges, red peppers, kale, brussel sprouts, broccoli, strawberries, and guava are all high sources of vitamin C. When dehydrating, first steam blanch OR dip these items in pineapple, orange or lemon juice before hand, which will reduce the loss of vitamin C during the dehydration process. Dehydrated vegetables store well hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen for up to 8-10 years, where as fruits have a much shorter storage life span. I have a dehydrator (Excalibur) and have been using it for years with great success with vegetable and fruit storage. In addition, if one is on the run, dehydrated or freeze dried food is light weight and easy to carry. Another thing I do periodically is sprouting in my kitchen (so much fun). Sprouting is easy and can be done anywhere as long as you have some water with sprouts available to eat in 3-4 days. Sprouting legumes such as lentils can provide fair levels of vitamin C. In addition to, if legumes are stored correctly in the absence of oxygen, they can last several years through many winters. THANK YOU for your comment, Lora (author)

  18. An alternative to the usual sources of vitamin C is pine needles, usually as pine needle tea. There is more vitamin c in the tea than an orange.

    1. This advice is correct when using the eastern white pine for your pine needle tea. However, here in the Redoubt, our ubiquitous ponderosa pine needles are toxic. Please be sure you know your pine tree prior to ingesting a tea made from the needles.

  19. I was hoping that survivalblog would respond with your insight re the recent bombing our president did in Syria….
    love your new format.
    May God Bless you and keep you….

  20. As mentioned above, the needles from any Pine tree (pinus sp.) contain Vitamin C.
    Chop them up and steep them in warm (NOT hot) water to make a tea.

  21. L.S. because of a future cobtamination of our water systems would you see a need for typhoid prophalaxis and if so would you recommend oral or injection. Also what precautions would be necessary to limit conyracting this disease. Wasnt it once a problem in rural regions of US prior to modern water treatment plants. Have a Nice day!

  22. Hello Cathleen
    Typhoid is a bacterial disease found in contaminated food and water, and its also a disease that can carried/transferred by humans. Remember Typhoid Mary? Mary Mallon was a asymptomatic carrier of typhoid, who worked in New York as a cook in the early 1900s. Mary infected several people with typhoid in New York, where sadly some of those people did not recover. Since typhoid is a bacteria, it can become a problem anywhere where food and water are contaminated, or by human carrier. Currently, typhoid disease is found in Mexico, Central America, South America, Africa and Asia (areas of the southern hemisphere). However under the right circumstances (chaos with systems down), it could and most likely would reappear in the US. The oral Typhoid vaccine provides 5 years of protection and it’s a live vaccine, where as the typhoid injection provides 2 years of protection and it is the best choice for those folks who are interested in an inactive version of this vaccine. Bottom line, consuming safe water and food is imperative in a survival emergency situation to avoid diseases like typhoid fever. Thank you for your inquiry, Lora (LS)

  23. You’re welcome! This is interesting stuff. Too often just relagated to movies and third world countries,but some day may unfortunately be a matter to deal with closer to home, in a new reality. Thank you for your informative response.

  24. For you Redoubters, Ponderosa Pine needles are NOT toxic. That is a myth, based on an animal study from the 1970’s. Check out the “eat the weeds” website for more information…

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