Notes for Tuesday – September 27, 2016

This is the birthday of Samuel Adams (not counting the change in dates due to the change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar). He was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Today, we present another entry for Round 66 of the SurvivalBlog non-fiction writing contest. The nearly $12,000 worth of prizes for this round include:

First Prize:

  1. A Tactical Self-Contained 2-Series Solar Power Generator system from Always Empowered. This compact starter power system is packaged in a wheeled O.D. green EMP-shielded Pelican hard case (a $1,700 value),
  2. A Gunsite Academy Three Day Course Certificate that is good for any one, two, or three day course (a $1,195 value),
  3. A course certificate from onPoint Tactical for the prize winner’s choice of three-day civilian courses, excluding those restricted for military or government teams. Three day onPoint courses normally cost $795,
  4. DRD Tactical is providing a 5.56 Nato QD Billet upper with a hammer forged, chrome-lined barrel and a hard case to go with your own AR lower. It will allow any standard AR-type rifle to have a quick change barrel, which can be assembled in less than one minute without the use of any tools and a compact carry capability in a hard case or 3-day pack (an $1,100 value),
  5. Gun Mag Warehouse is providing 20 Magpul PMAG 30-rd Magazines (a value of $300) and a Gun Mag Warehouse T-Shirt; (an equivalent prize will be awarded for residents in states with magazine restrictions),
  6. Two cases of Mountain House freeze-dried assorted entrees in #10 cans, courtesy of Ready Made Resources (a $350 value),
  7. The Ark Institute is donating a non-GMO, non-hybrid vegetable seed package (enough for two families of four) plus seed storage materials, a CD-ROM of Geri Guidetti’s book “Build Your Ark! How to Prepare for Self Reliance in Uncertain Times”, and two bottles of Potassium Iodate (a $325 retail value),
  8. A $250 gift certificate good for any product from Sunflower Ammo,
  9. is donating an AquaBrick water filtration kit with a retail value of $250, and
  10. Two cases of meals, Ready to Eat (MREs), courtesy of (a $180 value).

Second Prize:

  1. A Glock form factor SIRT laser training pistol and a SIRT AR-15/M4 Laser Training Bolt, courtesy of Next Level Training, which have a combined retail value of $589,
  2. A transferable certificate for a two-day Ultimate Bug Out Course from Florida Firearms Training (a $400 value),
  3. A Model 175 Series Solar Generator provided by Quantum Harvest LLC (a $439 value),
  4. A Trekker IV™ Four-Person Emergency Kit from Emergency Essentials (a $250 value),
  5. A $200 gift certificate good towards any books published by,
  6. A pre-selected assortment of military surplus gear from CJL Enterprize (a $300 value),
  7. RepackBox is providing a $300 gift certificate to their site, and
  8. American Gunsmithing Institute (AGI) is providing a $300 certificate good towards any of their DVD training courses.

Third Prize:

  1. A Royal Berkey water filter, courtesy of Directive 21 (a $275 value),
  2. A $245 gift certificate from custom knife-maker Jon Kelly Designs, of Eureka, Montana,
  3. A large handmade clothes drying rack, a washboard, and a Homesteading for Beginners DVD, all courtesy of The Homestead Store, with a combined value of $206,
  4. Expanded sets of both washable feminine pads and liners, donated by Naturally Cozy (a $185 retail value),
  5. Two Super Survival Pack seed collections, a $150 value, courtesy of Seed for Security, LLC,
  6. Mayflower Trading is donating a $200 gift certificate for homesteading appliances,
  7. Montie Gear is donating a Precision Rest (a $249 value), and
  8. Two 1,000-foot spools of full mil-spec U.S.-made 750 paracord (in-stock colors only) from (a $240 value).

Round 66 ends on September 31st, so get busy writing and e-mail us your entry. Remember that there is a 1,500-word minimum, and that articles on practical “how to” skills for survival have an advantage in the judging.

Alaska As A Survival Location, by S.J.

I would like to add some more thoughts to the discussion of Alaska as a potential area for survival relocation. There are many drawbacks to Alaska that should be addressed, but ultimately I do believe Alaska can be an excellent and advantageous survival area for some people.

I was born in Alaska and left when I was 17 for military service. I spent nine years in the lower 48, living in New England, Washington State, and North Dakota, with plenty of travels to all the in-between parts of the U.S. and a few trips to foreign countries. I’ve since returned to Alaska, and I am happy to be here from both the preparedness and quality of life standpoints.

One of the first questions people ask me about Alaska is how bad are the winters? This is not a good question, because Alaska is such a large state that it really is many different places, rather than one place.

Alaska’s Regional Lifestyles

The lifestyles of Alaskans are varied, depending upon the region.

The Arctic Region

I’ll begin with the Arctic Region. This is where the stereotype of Alaska as a place of parka clad Inuits, polar bears, and igloos comes from. It also has the major oil fields, where many Alaskans work, though very few live there when off hitch from their oil jobs. This area is probably a non-starter for most survivalists. The only towns are native villages where newcomers are not welcome. These villages also have high rates of alcoholism and crime. Additionally, little private land is available for sale.

The Western Region

The Western Region is also fairly harsh, but there are a few “white man towns”, like Dillingham and Nome, where an outsider could move to. Many of these town are located next to rich salmon and other fish stocks that could very viably support the small populations in case of restricted food supplies. There is also enough timber in most parts of this region to serve as a viable energy source. Winters in this area, especially, away from the coast, can be extremely cold. Negative 50 degrees Fahrenheit (ambient, not windchill) are the norm and not the exception. Packaged food is extremely expensive there, with ***canned soda*** costing up to $2.50 per can. This area is not accessible by road. The economy is driven by government, fishing, and some mining.

The Southwestern Region

The Southwestern Region includes Kodiak, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands. Kodiak and the Alaska Peninsula are similar enough to the Western Region to be viable. The Aleutian Islands should be ruled out completely. They require imported fuel, and all population centers are either commercial or Native Alaskan. This area is not accessible by road. This area’s economy is driven by fishing, tourism, and government.

The Interior Region

The Interior Region includes the state’s second largest city, Fairbanks, as well as part of the Yukon River and its many tributaries, all of which are rich in salmon runs. This region has towns that a new family could assimilate into, as well as timber for fuel and the possibility of farming certain hardy crops, such as potatoes, carrots, cabbages, and onions. It would be easy to acquire land in this area for a decent price that was far away from any ravaging hordes. Summers tend to be fairly hot by Alaskan standards, sometimes reaching the 90s, but with cold winters where -40F is not a cause for comment. This area is accessible by the road system, so food is priced fairly reasonably. Economic activities are oilfield transportation and staging, colleges, military, and mining. Communication systems in Alaska are actually very good, so if you’re lucky enough to do most of your work through the Internet, rural living wouldn’t be a problem at all.

The Southcentral Region

The Southcentral Region has the state’s largest city, Anchorage. Anchorage is like our own little piece of Los Angeles. I would avoid living or working in this city, if possible. A major earthquake would turn it into a nightmare in seconds. Besides that, there are pervasive drugs and rampant crime, just like almost any other city in the U.S. these days. Other parts of the Southcentral Region are much more promising, however. Winters in this area tend to be much more mild in coastal areas. Negative temperatures, while possible, are fairly rare and don’t last too long. Of course, as you move inland, the climate is much more similar to the Interior region. Summers are fairly cool, but this area can support hardy crops, including world record size cabbages, and it has many salmon streams. Many of the towns in the Southcentral region are located on the road system, so food and fuel are affordable. I believe that this area has the most potential for the aspiring Alaskan survivalist. While a life that is mostly similar to the lower 48 can be maintained, there is almost infinite potential for remote bug out locations, with land available for cabins and many places to hide. The economy in this area is based on residence for oil workers who are on days off, military, and some farming, fishing, and drilling/mining.

The Southeast Region

Last is the Southeast Region, which includes the state’s third largest city and the capitol, Juneau. Only three towns in this area are accessible by road: Hyder, Haines, and Skagway. The economy relies on fishing, and winters tend to be a slightly colder version of what you would experience in Western Washington. There is potential to do some real farming in this area, although the lack of flat land may present a problem. There is real potential for a bug out location accessible by boat here.


Here are the advantages I see to living in Alaska in the Interior, South Central, Southeast, and a few select areas in the other regions:

  1. Some of the most constitutional laws supporting the second amendment are found in Alaska. You will find few people in favor of gun control, and state law reflect that. This a wonderful advantage that is sorely lacking in many states.
  2. There is a wide availability of clean water, which is another necessity that is lacking in many states.
  3. You have the potential of having a truly isolated bug out location that rivals anything in the lower 48, especially when weighed against Alaska’s relatively small population of 700,000.
  4. Alaska has a large number of Christian, independent spirited, and serious people who would be unlikely to lose their heads. While there are plenty of trashy and other problem people, mainly concentrated in Anchorage, you can’t put a price on being surrounded by good people, and I believe that the “good” Alaskans are some of the best people you will ever meet. The best part is that, thanks to the more or less constant influx of people to Alaska over the last one hundred years, locals are not closed off to outsiders, which could definitely be an issue in some rural areas of the U.S. where you might try to relocate to.
  5. Alaska has a friendly attitude towards homeschooling, which is the ideal means of education for any preparedness-minded family.

I should briefly mention that it is mostly a myth that people are paid to live in Alaska. It is true that each Alaskan resident receives a check, usually about $1200/year from invested money from taxes on the oil companies. This is part of our “Permanent Fund” program. Since recent budget shortfalls, there is talk of doing away with these payments.


There are several disadvantage to Alaska that I must discuss, but all of them are surmountable with proper mindset, preparation, and planning.

Alaska’s economy relies on oil, meaning that there can be ups and downs. Correlated to this is the very large state government, which relies on revenues from oil taxes. This means that the state is hit twice in down times, with both oil workers and state workers being laid off. Like anywhere else, this threat can be countered with thrift, frugality, and recession proofing wherever possible. Short of a complete economic collapse, there will still be dollars to be had in Alaska.

Food could become a major problem in case of economic or natural catastrophe. Contrary to what you might think, game is fairly scarce in our arctic and sub-arctic climates. Fish populations could very well collapse if put under the stress of feeding thousands of people. Farming in this area will be possible but probably insufficient for all caloric needs. However, these will all be factors no matter where you live. That is why I believe a larder as deep as you can afford is an absolute must. Thankfully, the most important staples are inexpensive and nonperishable, like wheat berries, sugar, rice, and salt. These supplies will be a vital bridge to the next phase, whether that is self sufficiency or the end of the crisis.

The powerful earthquakes that rock Alaska every few years could also be an issue. While these may seriously affect our major population centers, such as Anchorage, a person in a rural area who is properly prepared will likely be unscathed. For this reason I will always try to live as close to work as possible, but I think that should go without saying for any prepper.

The long, cold winters and their accompanying darkness could be a problem for some people. However, if I have learned anything from working on oil rigs during one of coldest winters in living memory in North Dakota, it is that these things are largely a matter of mind over matter, assuming you are properly equipped, of course.

Transportation can be difficult in Alaska, with so much land and so few roads. Anyone who comes here should plan on buying a 4-WD vehicle and an ATV, as well as the fuel supplies to go with them. For people with the funds, a boat and even a bush plane would be ideal. As always, no matter where you live, the ability to carry large loads on your back over rugged terrain could be the difference between life and death.

Hopefully this gives everyone a picture of what relocating to Alaska would be like. It certainly has its hardships, but there are many advantages for the more adventurous prepper. It deserves a second look, if for no other reason than to take a trip to one of the country’s most beautiful states. If you’ll be a good neighbor, I look forward to seeing you up here!

Letter Re: Differences Between Combustible Gases

Dear Hugh,

In response to D.H.’s questions on gas, I offer my thoughts. Generally, I would tell anyone to use the gas specifically recommended for the equipment they intend to use. Trying to keep it simple about the different gases, an explanation of the differences follows.

The first difference between the gases is chemical makeup. Propane has three carbons atoms (and hydrogen atoms) in the molecule. Butane has four carbons, and so does its isomer iso-butane. Butane is arranged in a four carbon chain, while Iso-butane has a center carbon, with the other three carbons coming off like spokes, and they have different flash points. Natural gas is a combination of methane (one carbon) and many of these other gases. Propane, methane, and butane are all derived from natural gas through a process called fractional distillation that takes advantage of each chemical’s flash points to separate them and remove impurities. Natural gas is brought up from the earth in different ways, but it gets purified first before market. CNG is compressed natural gas, highly pressurized, and somewhat expensive to store. It is probably the least practical, because of the storage tank costs. Aside from chemical differences and molecular structural differences, these gases have different flash points. Flash point refers to the lowest temperature at which the chemical may burn. The lower the flash point, the more hazardous the gas. So, in regards to the question about putting propane (a lower flash point) into a butane lighter (higher flash point), it would be more hazardous. Would you really want to do that at a time when medical assistance might be less available? Yes, in a few automobiles there are some fuels that can be used diversely, but I stress the importance of having the manufacturer’s recommendations. I bought a new gas stove about four years back and had to order one built specifically for liquid propane over natural gas. Liquid propane from a tank is at a higher pressure than natural gas, so there is a slight difference in the parts. (They each require a different orifice.) Conversion kits for stoves are usually available to switch from natural gas to propane.

I advise against blanket statements about crossing fuels for this and that. I believe a better way to go is to purchase equipment that uses the same fuels and are practical for you to store. For instance, you could have a diesel tank that can fuel your truck, tractor, and generator all the same. Diesel is great because it has a higher (safer) flash point. Or, you could have a large liquid propane tank that will power a propane generator, refrigerator, dryer, heater, et cetera. (You should know that some portable propane heaters will get gummed up regulators if you leave the hose connected while not in use. Source: Mr Buddy Heater, response from company in Amazon reviews; see footnote.) Line up your equipment for the same fuel and get a large tank for it. We chose two different fuels and tanks that will power two banks of equipment. Make sure you own/purchase your tank, don’t rent one, and review safety recommendations for how far the tank should be from the house. Don’t forget to put away some chainsaw gas/oil mix, if you plan to heat with a wood stove. I do not claim to be a fuel expert, BUT I have had practical hands-on experience with fuel in work and have a good working knowledge of flash points. With my experience, I would not use fuels against manufacturer’s design, and I strongly recommend against anyone else doing it. Here is a link to a chart of some fuels and flashpoints.

Response from Mr. Heater:
When you connect any of our Buddy model heaters to a remote propane tank, that tank can have over 120 PSI of pressure inside it. This high pressure in the rubber hose connected to the heater can squeeze a plasticizer or an oil out of the rubber in the hose and once it gets into the heater it is trapped and will plug up the tubes and cause the heater to be an unreliable unit. We came up with a fuel filter to prevent this oily substance from getting into the heater when using a high pressure hose. The hose manufacturers came up with a hose that doesn’t have the plasticizers in it so NO filter is needed (our part number for this plasticizer hose is F273704). But the draw back with this hose is with no plasticizers in the rubber it causes the hose to be very stiff especially in cold weather. So you don’t need the filter but you have to work with a hose that doesn’t like to straighten out or is more difficult to work with because of this stiffness. As far as the hose with the quick coupler, this is only available to be used on the Big Buddy MH18B heaters. The Big Buddy has two built in regulators but also has a male quick coupler built-in that by-passes these two regulators so if you have a regulated propane supply like in an RV or your house, you can use our hose to connect to this low pressure source (all low pressure is less than 1/2 PSI of pressure). We also have a hose for the Big Buddy that has the quick coupler connection to the heater and a regulator at the connection to the propane tank, like on a barbeque grill. Because the regulator is mounted directly to the propane tank it reduces the very high 110 PSI of pressure from the tank to the low 1/2 PSI pressure. Because this pressure is so low it will not be able to squeeze out the oily plasticizers from the rubber in the hose and does not need a fuel filter. – Bradford Austin

– Mrs RLB

News From The American Redoubt:

These statistics show how the Redoubt shapes up in terms of where creative people live in the USA: Redoubt Home to More Creatives Than Rest of USA – K.G.

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Max Velocity Tactical has opened a new training facility in Spokane, Washington. If you live in the area (or would just like to try their new facility) you may be interested in their first class (Combat Rifle Skills with an optional Night Firing).

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The Liberal/Progressives hit Missoula: Missoula approves background check ordinance, votes 8-4

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Idaho: Old Lower Hydropower Plant back in service

Economics and Investing:

Global debt climbs towards fresh high as companies and countries keep on borrowing – G.G.

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Bank of Japan Tries Another Way to Spur Inflation – G.G.

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Inside OPEC: What Does Each Member Want?. As OPEC members gather in Algiers, it is worth noting that the cartel is internally divided and that a joint solution remains a long shot.

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The Economics of Hillary Clinton

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SurvivalBlog and its editors are not paid investment counselors or advisers. Please see our Provisos page for details.

Odds ‘n Sods:

From The Burning Platform: What Do We Do Now? – G.S.

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Mexico hit by surge of 5K Haitian, African and Asian migrants on their way to the U.S. – B.B.

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Leaked FBI data reveal 7,700 terrorist encounters in USA in one year – B.B.

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Violent crime and murders both went up in 2015, FBI says. – S.L.

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Someone is Testing Methods for Taking Down the Entire Internet. – G.P.

Pat Cascio’s Product Review: SIG Sauer P250

I saw my first SIG handgun back in 1980, when I was running a gun shop and new to the gun biz but not new to guns. A customer wanted me to order him a Browning BDA .45 ACP pistol. I hadn’t heard of it, to be honest. So, I did some research and found that the Browning BDA (Browning Double Action) was actually made by SIG and was being imported by Browning. When the gun came in for my customer, I was more than a little impressed with it. It had excellent workmanship all the way around. That was my introduction into SiIG firearms.


Today, SIG Sauer is a major player in the law enforcement market, with many police officers carrying a SIG Sauer of some sort in their holsters. SIG isn’t one to sit back on past accomplishments; they are always on the cutting edge when it comes to long guns as well as handguns. I’ve owned more than my share of Sig handguns over the years, and one thing always stands out– the accuracy of these guns. Their accuracy is outstanding!

My local FFL dealer got a SIG P250 Sub-Compact handgun in. It was used in .45ACP, and I checked it out a good number of times over several weeks before working a trade. For whatever reason, and this is strange, SIG handguns simply don’t sell very well at my local gun shop. It may be the price point, since our area isn’t very “rich”, to put it politely. While some might think that a SIG handgun is overpriced, they are not. They are an excellent firearm for the money.


The P250 is a double-action only (DAO) handgun, and it has a super-smooth trigger pull that is long but extremely smooth all the way through the pull of the trigger. The hammer is bobbed, so it can’t catch on anything when drawing, too. The gun weighs in at about 25 ounces for the Sub-Compact version, which is the one I have. The frame is black polymer, and the frame itself can be swapped out for a different sized frame. There are longer ones to hold more ammo. Of course, the slide can be changed, too. Check the SIG website for complete information on this.

SIG advertises the trigger pull as between 5.5 and 6.5 pounds, and they are right. As mentioned, the trigger pull is super-smooth and better than many revolvers that have had a trigger job. I kid you not. The Sub-Compact model holds six rounds of .45 ACP. However, you can get an extended mag with a sleeve, and it will allow you to carry nine rounds, but it sort of defeats the purpose of carrying a sub-compact handgun. My sample came with two 6-rd mags and one 9-rd mag. I’ll admit that firing the P250 is much more comfortable with a 9-rd mag, since it gives the pinky finger a lot more purchase on the gun.


The slide is finished with Nitron, a very durable coating that really brushes off the elements. My sample also had night sights. That’s always a good thing on any handgun, if you ask me. The Compact and Duty sized guns have a Picatinny rail on the frame for mounting lights and lasers. The Sub-Compact model doesn’t have this feature. The trigger guard on the Sub-Compact model is rounded, though on the larger guns it is squared off in the front. You have three controls on the frame. One is the take-down lever, and the other is the slide release/stop. Plus, there is the magazines release.

SIG came up with an outstanding idea with their interchangeable frames. Well, you aren’t actually changing the frame as you would with a traditional pistol. Instead, you are actually removing the trigger group from the frame, and it has the serial number on it. So, you can actually purchase, directly from SIG, a different sized framed without having to go through an FFL dealer. Just pop out the trigger group, and install it in a different frame, and you can also change calibers by changing the slide/barrel and magazines. It’s quite a gun, to say the least.


The P250 felt really good in my hand, and that is half the battle if you ask me. If a gun doesn’t feel right or doesn’t fit your hand, you’re not going to shoot well with it. Even my very picky wife, when it comes to handguns, liked the way the gun felt in her hand.

Now, on to the long, very long double-action only trigger pull. As mentioned, it is very smooth, and I expected no less from SIG. However, the long trigger pull just wasn’t working for me. I was pulling all my shots low and to the left. No matter how hard I tried, all my shots were going low and to the left. This was shooting at 15 yards, off-hand, with no support. Surely, it wasn’t the gun. It had to be me!

The nice folks at Buffalo Bore Ammunition and Black Hills Ammunition, as always, came through for me with a great selection of .45 ACP ammo to test in the P250. From Buffalo Bore, I had their 160-gr Barnes TAC XP all-copper hollow point, low recoil standard velocity round, 255-gr Outdoorsman Hard Cast FN +P load, 230-gr FMJ FN +P, 200-gr JHP +P, 160-gr Barnes TAC XP all-copper hollow point +P, and their 185-gr Barnes TAC XP all-copper hollow point in +P. From Black Hills, I had their 200-gr Match SWC, 230-gr FMJ, 185-gr JHP, 200-gr JHP, 230-gr JHP +P, and their 185-gr Barnes TAC XP all-copper hollow point +P. So, there was a great mix of ammo to run through the little SIG P250.


There were zero malfunctions of any type, from the light loads to the heavy +P loads, and this didn’t surprise me. After all, it is a SIG! They are known for reliability and accuracy, if the shooter does their part.

For my accuracy testing, I rested the gun on a sleeping bag over a rock, and shooting was done at 15 yards. I had some really decent groups of three inches, and some that were over four inches. Let me make this clear. It wasn’t the gun or the ammo; it was me. I simply couldn’t get used to the very long, double-action only trigger pull. I caught myself flinching many times, because of the long trigger pull. I tested the gun over a period of a month, and no matter what I did I caught myself flinching, anticipating the gun going off, due to the long trigger pull. I’ve owned many DAO pistols over the years, and none caused me to flinching like the P250 did. It was not the gun; it was me!100_6242

As mentioned earlier on, shooting off-hand with no support my shots were low and to the left of the bullseye. I couldn’t get any groups per se, shooting without a support. Now, with that said, I’m sure that if the gun were used in a self defense scenario, I wouldn’t flinch like I was doing during target shooting. I simply could not master the DAO trigger pull on the P250, no matter how hard I tried. The smoothness of the trigger pull should have been a no-brainer for me. I should have gotten some good groups off-hand, but I couldn’t!

I did have a tie for best accuracy when shooting over the sleeping bag. The 160-gr Barnes TAC XP Barnes load standard velocity load and the Black Hills 230-gr FMJ loads were right at three inches. This was at 15 yards. I know the gun and ammo were capable of much better accuracy than I was capable of.


Every now and then, I just run across a handgun that no matter how hard I try, I can’t master the trigger pull. I’m used to the short and crisp trigger pull on the 1911, and I don’t have any problems with most DAO trigger pulls on other polymer framed pistols. However, this P250 stumped me. It had me beat, no matter what I did. In the end, I ended up trading the P250 for something else. While there was nothing wrong with the gun, I couldn’t master the trigger on it. The gun felt great in the hand, was well made, and is capable of better accuracy than I could wring out of it. Full retail is $548 on the gun, and for a SIG that’s a great bargain, if you ask me, if you can master the long but smooth trigger pull.

– Senior Product Review Editor, Pat Cascio

Recipe of the Week: Carrots in Dilled Wine Sauce, by J.R.


  • 8 medium carrots, cut into small sticks
  • ½ cup chicken bouillon
  • ½ cup dry white wine
  • ½ tsp dried dill weed
  • 2 tsp instant minced onion
  • ¼ tsp garlic salt
  • 1 Tbsp lemon juice
  • 2 Tbsp cornstarch
  • 2 Tbsp cold water


  1. Place carrots in a slow-cooking pot.
  2. Combine bouillon, wine, dill, onion, garlic salt, and lemon juice; then pour over the carrots.
  3. Cover and cook on high 2 to 3 hours.
  4. Dissolve cornstarch in water, then stir into the carrot mixture.
  5. Cook on high for 10 minutes or until slightly thickened.

Makes 6 servings.

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Useful Recipe and Cooking Links:

Do you have a favorite recipe that would be of interest to SurvivalBlog readers? Please send it via e-mail. Thanks!

Letter Re: Differences Between Combustible Gasses


The difference between CNG and piped-in gas to your home is simply pressure. The gas in my house is at 7 psi and if your thumb is big enough you can stop the flow. CNG could be as high as 3000 psi, and you find it in tanks for vehicles that burn natural gas and filling stations for natural gas burning vehicles. The difference between butane, propane, and natural gas is British Thermal Units (btu) generated by a cubic foot of each substance. From high school, a btu is the amount of energy it takes to raise one pound of water one degree Farenheit at one atmosphere of pressure. I know that propane generates 20% more heat when comparing the same quantity of that to natural gas. I’m not sure where butane falls in there. The difference in heat yield is dealt with by changing the orifice through which the substance travels to be burned. It is very dangerous to change gases and not change orifices. Butane always comes in a device with a tiny opening. I would infer that its yield is even higher than propane. You find it employed in handy small devices all the time. I have a kit to install on one of my generators that claims to allow use of propane, natural gas, or gasoline. It relies on a needle valve to adjust the flow of fuel rather than an orifice change. The kit is in a box because I am waiting on some free time to install it. Guess you know how that is working out. There is also equipment that involves a venturi valve that will dilute propane with air as it flows from the tank to the device burning it so that the btu yield is reduced to that of natural gas. This equipment has industrial and institutional applications and is priced accordingly. Another nuance on gases is that natural gas floats. It is lighter than air. Propane on the other hand is a product of the crude oil distillation process and is heavier than air. It will collect in a low spot and potentially explode. As a consequence, you have to be careful about installing propane equipment over basements and crawl spaces. Certainly it is done, but you cannot have a switch that sparks or a device with an igniter in your crawl space. You just have to be conscious and careful. It is universally held as a bad idea to install propane-fueled equipment in a pit under your house. I dug that pit when I was young. Fortunately I learned the “propane collects” lesson from advice and not launching my house. RV

Economics and Investing:

Everyone thinks they are middle class: The false perceptions many Americans hold. – B.B.

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What If The Oil Rebound Never Happens?

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The Student-Loan Scam Killed ITT Tech

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Yellen helps Clinton dodge a bullet

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Hanjin Gets $45 Million Credit Line From Korean State Lender

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SurvivalBlog and its editors are not paid investment counselors or advisers. Please see our Provisos page for details.