Preparedness Notes for Tuesday — September 29, 2020

September 29th, 1881, was the birthday of Ludwig von Mises. (Born 1881, died October 10, 1973.)

SurvivalBlog Writing Contest

Today we present another entry for Round 90 of the SurvivalBlog non-fiction writing contest. The prizes for this round include:

First Prize:

  1. A gift certificate from Quantum Harvest LLC (up to a $2,200 value) good for 12% off the purchase of any of their sun-tracking models, and 10% off the purchase price of any of their other models.
  2. A Gunsite Academy Three Day Course Certificate. This can be used for any of their one, two, or three-day course (a $1,095 value),
  3. A course certificate from onPoint Tactical for the prize winner’s choice of three-day civilian courses, excluding those restricted for military or government teams. Three-day onPoint courses normally cost $795,
  4. DRD Tactical is providing a 5.56 NATO QD Billet upper. These have hammer forged, chrome-lined barrels and a hard case, to go with your own AR lower. It will allow any standard AR-type rifle to have a quick change barrel. This can be assembled in less than one minute without the use of any tools. It also provides a compact carry capability in a hard case or in 3-day pack (a $1,100 value),
  5. Two cases of Mountain House freeze-dried assorted entrees in #10 cans, courtesy of Ready Resources (a $350 value),
  6. A $250 gift certificate good for any product from Sunflower Ammo,
  7. American Gunsmithing Institute (AGI) is providing a $300 certificate good towards any of their DVD training courses.

Second Prize:

  1. A Front Sight Lifetime Diamond Membership, providing lifetime free training at any Front Sight Nevada course, with no limit on repeating classes. This prize is courtesy of a SurvivalBlog reader who prefers to be anonymous.
  2. A Glock form factor SIRT laser training pistol and a SIRT AR-15/M4 Laser Training Bolt, courtesy of Next Level Training, that have a combined retail value of $589,
  3. A Three-Day Deluxe Emergency Kit from Emergency Essentials (a $190 value),
  4. Two 1,000-foot spools of full mil-spec U.S.-made 750 paracord (in-stock colors only) from www.TOUGHGRID.com (a $240 value).
  5. An assortment of products along with a one-hour consultation on health and wellness from Pruitt’s Tree Resin (a $265 value).

Third Prize:

  1. Three sets each of made-in-USA regular and wide-mouth reusable canning lids. (This is a total of 300 lids and 600 gaskets.) This prize is courtesy of Harvest Guard (a $270 value)
  2. A Royal Berkey water filter, courtesy of Directive 21 (a $275 value),
  3. Naturally Cozy is donating a “Prepper Pack” Menstrual Kit.  This kit contains 18 pads and it comes vacuum-sealed for long term storage or slips easily into a bugout bag.  The value of this kit is $220.
  4. Two Super Survival Pack seed collections, a $150 value, courtesy of Seed for Security, LLC,
  5. A transferable $150 purchase credit from Elk Creek Company, toward the purchase of any pre-1899 antique gun. There is no paperwork required for delivery of pre-1899 guns into most states, making them the last bastion of firearms purchasing privacy!

Round 90 ends on September 30th, so get busy writing and e-mail us your entry. Remember that there is a 1,500-word minimum, and that articles on practical “how-to” skills for survival have an advantage in the judging.



PV Solar Panels Can Pay For Themselves, by St. Funogas

Author’s Introductory Note: Grid-tied solar panel payback time is less than seven years in most of the lower 48 states, and quickest in some of the New England states, so don’t think solar isn’t for you just because you live in North Dakota or Vermont. RUN THE NUMBERS which I’ll show you how to easily do. If you don’t care about all the details of how and why, skip to the last section called “Quick Way to Figure out Payback Time.” There are only three numbers to enter on your calculator and you’ll have your payback time in years. Then you can come back and read the details if you’re so inclined.

From time to time on SurvivalBlog discussions come up about whether or not solar panels can pay for themselves. I’ve been amazed as I’ve traveled around the country and seen so few homes with solar panels, and wondered why more people don’t take advantage of nearly-free electricity. I’ve concluded that the three biggest reasons are 1.) most people are not aware of how simple it is to install grid-tied solar panels yourself, 2.) they erroneously think they need storage batteries and all kinds of complicated equipment, and 3.) they’re not sure how to do the math to figure out if solar panels are feasible in their area.

First, A Brief Tutorial

So, let’s tackle those reasons in a quick tutorial.

First, if you can hook up an electric water heater, you can most likely hook up your own grid-tied PV system in a couple of days. Second, if you can install them yourself and follow some basic rules of frugality outlined below, nearly everybody in the lower 48 can make a home, grid-tied PV (photovoltaic) system pay for itself in 3½ to 7 years.

My philosophy behind having a grid-tied PV system is this: for now, we want  inexpensive electricity and something simple to get us started in solar energy and, in the event of TEOTWAWKI, we want to be able to have the ability to convert our system over to something that will at least charge some batteries to provide lighting for our post-SHTF life, and hopefully much more than that. We are not trying to save the planet so let’s avoid that topic in the comments section please. (Note on EMP/Carrington Event later.)Continue reading“PV Solar Panels Can Pay For Themselves, by St. Funogas”



SurvivalBlog’s News From The American Redoubt

This weekly column features news stories and event announcements from around the American Redoubt region. (Idaho, Montana, eastern Oregon, eastern Washington, and Wyoming.) Much of the region is also more commonly known as The Inland Northwest. We also mention companies of interest to preppers and survivalists that are located in the American Redoubt region. Today, we focus on the release of Todd Engel.   (See the Idaho section.)

Idaho

First and foremost, there is this update, over at Redoubt NewsExclusive: Welcome Home Todd Engel!

(The photo of Todd Engel and Rep. Heather Scott at the top of this column is courtesy of Redoubt News.)

The editors of Redoubt News note that after four and a half years of wrongful incarceration, Engel is attempting to put his life back together. If you’d like to help him and his family, then please visit the new Engel Family GoFundMe page.

o  o  o

Median Ada County home sales price passes $400,000 in August thanks to dwindling inventory

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Genesis Arms of Sandpoint, Idaho has introduced a new AR-10 variant in 12 gauge with a 10.5″ barrel and an arm brace. It is classified as a “firearm”–not a shotgun, nor a pistol.  This is the same category as a Remington Tac-14.

o  o  o

A recent visit to the Seekins Precision web site shows that most of their guns are sold out, but they are taking back-orders.

Continue reading“SurvivalBlog’s News From The American Redoubt”





Preparedness Notes for Monday — September 28, 2020

Flash Traffic: Azerbaijan announces military mobilization, declares state of war.  Not to make light of this grave situation, but when I was attending the Military Intelligence school (MIOBC) at Fort Huachuca, we used to make jokes about Armenia and its army.  One of our favorites:  “What is the Armenian national anthem?”  Cher sings it. (And then we’d all sing the chorus.) Here is some news footage.

Here is a new listing over  SurvivalRealty: Off-Grid Country Home Bordering State Land in Northern Arizona.

We have resumed taking orders for Elk Creek Company. My #1 Daughter is already busy padding and packing orders, as they come in. But be advised that we won’t begin shipping out most of the orders until Monday, October 5th. (We live at a remote ranch, and don’t get into town often.)

Today, another product review from our tireless Field Gear Editor, Pat Cascio. (Pictured.) He lives in southwestern Oregon.

 

 



Buck Ground Combat Knives, by Pat Cascio

I’ve had my Buck Knives Ground Combat fixed blade knives for a month and a half now, and wanted to give them a good workout before writing about them. However, this isn’t always the case with many other writers and websites. Many of these writers simply took the Buck press release, that was sent to them – I got it, too – and wrote their articles based on that piece of paper, without ever actually having the knives in-hand to test.

As an aside: One big-name knife company – that I won’t mention by name – once had a new public relations guy, and it was pretty obvious that he was probably fresh out of college. This young man knew just how to do public relations – by the book – not by actually having any hands-on experience. His concept was that writers would do articles on new knives his company was producing, by him simply sending them out a press release and a couple of color slides. Well, that didn’t happen – no one wrote any articles on those knives…it was only a few short months later, when this young man called me – almost begging me – to request some knife samples to write about – he was gone within six months.

To be clear on this, and I’ve mentioned this before, I will never write an article, without having a gun, knife or whatever the product is, without actually having the product in my hands for testing. If a company doesn’t want to send me a sample to use and abuse – to a certain extent – then I’m not interested in writing about their product. It is not fair to our readers, to write-up a review, without actually having hands-on experience with a product.

When I started writing, which has been more than 28 years ago, I took the advice from my long-time friend, and brother in Christ, John Taffin, who is also a gun writer. John told me “never tell lies in your articles, so you don’t have to remember those lies…” And, I’ve lived by that advice. I prefer to report the truth, the facts, my findings, and my opinions. And, don’t ask me what I had for breakfast yesterday – I can’t remember – see, what I’m talking about? It’s easier to report the truth than to make up lies.

Of course, readers can disagree on my findings in my articles, that’s only natural for some folks. That’s okay, I simply report the facts, as I see them, and my opinions, based on a lifetime of being around firearms and cutlery. I used to write for many of the printed gun, knife, and survival magazines – did so for a lot of years, but got sick and tired of spending more time – literally – begging to get paid, than I did testing and writing articles, so I stopped writing for all of them. So now write for SurvivalBlog.com on a regular basis – as a paid freelance writer, and I enjoy the freedom that SurvivalBlog’s Senior Editor, Jim Rawles, gives me to write about just about anything I want.

Back to Buck Knives, and their new Ground Combat fixed blade knives, I first heard about them last December, from my contact at Buck, and she thought they would be a great product for SurvivalBlog readers. I waited anxiously, for the SHOT Show to be over, so I could get my samples – well, it was quite a few weeks after that, before they arrived at my door – although they were well worth the wait. Buck doesn’t come out with a lot of new knives annually. But when they do, I can’t hardly wait for samples to reach me for testing. Buck has been around for more than 100 years. So they are well established as a premier knife making company. On average, a knife has a life span of about three years on the market – that’s not very long, to be sure, after that, the public wants something new and different. However, if you look at some of the cutlery Buck is producing, it has been around 50-60 years – some longer than that, so Buck knows what they are doing.

The Specifications

Buck is producing two different versions of their Ground Combat fixed blade knives, one has a spear point, and the other a tanto point – quite a bit of difference between them. The spear point blade is made out of 5160 carbon steel, where the tanto blade is made out of the same tough steel – very tough steel, to stand up to the rigors you’d use this knife for – be it combat, survival, or just hunting. Both knives have a 5.50-inch blade – I would have loved a blade half an inch longer for hand-to-hand combat, but 5.50-inches will have to suffice. Overall length of both knives is right at 10.75-inches, and the blade thickness is 0.200 inches.Continue reading“Buck Ground Combat Knives, by Pat Cascio”



Recipe of the Week: Brisket With Onion Sauce

The following recipe for Brisket With Onion Sauce is from The New Butterick Cook Book, by Flora Rose, co-head of the School of Home Economics at Cornell University. It was published in 1924. A professional scan of that 724-page out-of-copyright book will be one of the many bonus items included in the next edition of the waterproof SurvivalBlog Archive USB stick. This special 15th Anniversary Edition USB stick should be available for sale in the third week of January, 2021. The 14th Edition sold out quickly, so place a reminder in your calendar, if you want one.

Ingredients
  • 3 pounds beef brisket
  • Soup Greens
  • Cloves
  • Peppercorns
  • Salt
  • 1 egg
  • Breadcrumbs
  • 1/2 cup green onions
  • 2 tablespoons fat
  • 2 tablespoons flour
  • 1/2 cups beef stock
  • 1 tablespoon minced parsley
Directions
  1. Wipe the meat with a damp cloth.
  2. Tie it into a compact shape with strips of cloth.
  3. Place ii in a deep kettle with boiling water (or part of the stock, if possibie.)
  4. Add a-bunch of soup greens, several cloves, and peppercorns.
  5. Simmer until the meat is tender, add salt when partly cooked.
  6. Take the meat from the liquid.
  7. Remove the cloth, and place meat in a shallow baking-dish.
  8. Beat one egg and spread over the beef.
  9. Sprinkle with coarse crumbs and brown under a flame or in a hot oven.
SERVING

Serve with onion sauce, made as follows: Cut up the onions and brown them in the fat. make a brown sauce of the fat, flour, and stock.

Add the parsley and serve.

Do you have a favorite recipe that would be of interest to SurvivalBlog readers? In this weekly recipe column, we place emphasis on recipes that use long term storage foods, recipes for wild game, dutch oven and slow cooker recipes, and any that use home garden produce. If you have any favorite recipes, then please send them via e-mail. Thanks!



Economics & Investing For Preppers

Here are the latest news items and commentary on current economics news, market trends, stocks, investing opportunities, and the precious metals markets. We also cover hedges, derivatives, and obscura. Most of these items are from the “tangibles heavy” contrarian perspective of SurvivalBlog’s Founder and Senior Editor, JWR. Today, we look at prospects for a digital Euro currency and a new Digital Dollar..

Precious Metals:

The past week has been a rollercoaster ride for silver, gold, and platinum. On Monday, September 21st, the price of silver broke down 9%. It got as low $22.55 on September 25th. But this morning it was back up to 23.33. This level of volatility in silver and gold can be frightening. But we need to step back and look at the big picture. Here is some long-term perspective: Golden Bulls: Visualizing the Price of Gold from 1915-2020.

And always remember this: Gold and silver are not becoming “more valuable”.  The “rising price” of commodities merely reflects the U.S. Dollar gradually becoming worthless.

o  o  o

Is The COMEX Fudging Physical Delivery Data?

o  o  o

Despite Mint Closures, Silver Bullion Sales Surge Past 2019 Numbers

Economy & Finance:

At Seeking Alpha: Barclays sees valuations at dot-com bubble levels, cuts megacaps

o  o  o

Martin W. Armstrong: Leaked files Expose $2.7 trillion Money Laundering by Big Banks

o  o  o

Wolf Street reports: Hit from All Sides, European Bank Stocks Swoon to 1988 Low

o  o  o

“He Needs Cash”: Ron Perelman’s Leveraged Empire Collapses In A Deluge Of Fire Sales

Continue reading“Economics & Investing For Preppers”



The Editors’ Quote of the Day:

“That the house of every one is to him as his Castle and Fortress as well for defence against injury and violence, as for his repose; and although the life of man is precious and favoured in law; so that although a man kill another in his defence, or kill one per infortuntun’ (by misfortune), without any intent, yet it is felony, and in such case he shall forfeit his goods and chattels, for the great regard which the law hath of a mans life; But if theeves come to a mans house to rob him, or murder, and the owner or his servants kill any of the theeves in defence of himself and his house, it is no felony, and he shall lose nothing, and therewith agreeth 3 Edw. 3. Coron. 303, & 305. & 26 Ass. pl. 23. So it is holden in 21 Hen. 7. 39. every one may assemble his friends or neighbours to defend his house against violence: But he cannot assemble them to goe with him to the Market or elsewhere to keep him from violence: And the reason of all the same is, because domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium. [Everyone’s house is his safest refuge.]” – Sir Edward Coke, 1604



Preparedness Notes for Sunday — September 27, 2020

This is the birthday of Samuel Adams (not counting the change in dates due to the change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar). He was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

SurvivalBlog Writing Contest

Today we present another entry for Round 90 of the SurvivalBlog non-fiction writing contest. The prizes for this round include:

First Prize:

  1. A gift certificate from Quantum Harvest LLC (up to a $2,200 value) good for 12% off the purchase of any of their sun-tracking models, and 10% off the purchase price of any of their other models.
  2. A Gunsite Academy Three Day Course Certificate. This can be used for any of their one, two, or three-day course (a $1,095 value),
  3. A course certificate from onPoint Tactical for the prize winner’s choice of three-day civilian courses, excluding those restricted for military or government teams. Three-day onPoint courses normally cost $795,
  4. DRD Tactical is providing a 5.56 NATO QD Billet upper. These have hammer forged, chrome-lined barrels and a hard case, to go with your own AR lower. It will allow any standard AR-type rifle to have a quick change barrel. This can be assembled in less than one minute without the use of any tools. It also provides a compact carry capability in a hard case or in 3-day pack (a $1,100 value),
  5. Two cases of Mountain House freeze-dried assorted entrees in #10 cans, courtesy of Ready Resources (a $350 value),
  6. A $250 gift certificate good for any product from Sunflower Ammo,
  7. American Gunsmithing Institute (AGI) is providing a $300 certificate good towards any of their DVD training courses.

Second Prize:

  1. A Front Sight Lifetime Diamond Membership, providing lifetime free training at any Front Sight Nevada course, with no limit on repeating classes. This prize is courtesy of a SurvivalBlog reader who prefers to be anonymous.
  2. A Glock form factor SIRT laser training pistol and a SIRT AR-15/M4 Laser Training Bolt, courtesy of Next Level Training, that have a combined retail value of $589,
  3. A Three-Day Deluxe Emergency Kit from Emergency Essentials (a $190 value),
  4. Two 1,000-foot spools of full mil-spec U.S.-made 750 paracord (in-stock colors only) from www.TOUGHGRID.com (a $240 value).
  5. An assortment of products along with a one-hour consultation on health and wellness from Pruitt’s Tree Resin (a $265 value).

Third Prize:

  1. Three sets each of made-in-USA regular and wide-mouth reusable canning lids. (This is a total of 300 lids and 600 gaskets.) This prize is courtesy of Harvest Guard (a $270 value)
  2. A Royal Berkey water filter, courtesy of Directive 21 (a $275 value),
  3. Naturally Cozy is donating a “Prepper Pack” Menstrual Kit.  This kit contains 18 pads and it comes vacuum-sealed for long term storage or slips easily into a bugout bag.  The value of this kit is $220.
  4. Two Super Survival Pack seed collections, a $150 value, courtesy of Seed for Security, LLC,
  5. A transferable $150 purchase credit from Elk Creek Company, toward the purchase of any pre-1899 antique gun. There is no paperwork required for delivery of pre-1899 guns into most states, making them the last bastion of firearms purchasing privacy!

Round 90 ends on September 30th, so get busy writing and e-mail us your entry. Remember that there is a 1,500-word minimum, and that articles on practical “how-to” skills for survival have an advantage in the judging.



Geopolitics: How Maps Help Us Understand History, Predict the Future – Pt. 2, by Brian Miller

(Continued from Part 1.  This concludes the article.)

Geopolitics, Social Darwinism, State Survival, and “Lebensraum”

These histories serve as a simplified starting point for understanding geopolitics, and the types of influences that are embedded in the concept. With state sovereignty came the dominant understanding that a state’s purpose was that of survival. Said differently, states were seen to always be in competition with different states.

In the late 19th century, Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection was being applied by scholars to the study of societies (Social Darwinism). German geographer, Friedrich Ratzel, applied Darwin’s natural selection theory to state sovereignty (particularly Germany), and together the concept became known as the “Organic Theory of the State.”

The foundation of Ratzel’s theory was that states interact with different states through the “survival of the fittest” perspective, and that a state must grow through territorial expansion in order to thrive.

The implementation of this theory had a particular consequence. Ratzel’s theory of state survival is said to have legitimized “continual war of all against all, as each country must seek the path of the least resistance to territorial expansion and must simultaneously defend its territory at all costs.”

The term “geopolitics” was coined by Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellen (a student of Ratzel’s) in 1899, and inspired an intellectual movement between German and Scandinavian scholars. This movement, supported by the “science” of geopolitics, resulted in a veneer of legitimacy that a state, and its nation, should be viewed as combined elements that together produce a stronger effect.

Ratzel envisioned the nation and state relationship as a “super-organism” whose strength was determined by the size of its territory, population, and the availability of natural resources. Ratzel further published The Sea as a Source of Greatness of a People in 1901, and identified ways in which the land and sea provide opportunity for expansion. This work introduced the concept “Lebensraum,” translated to mean “living space,” which argued that stronger states would naturally take territory and resources from weaker states.

Prior to World War I, Ratzel and Kjellen’s work contributed to the idea that Germany was the “land of geographers,” as German universities were among the first to teach geography. This renewed interest, supported by such geopolitical theories, positioned geography as the “god’s eye view” of how the world “really” worked.

The Nazi Connection: Geopolitk and Hitler’s “Mein Kampf”

The relationship between geopolitics and the rise of the Nazi party is accredited to political geographer Karl Haushofer. Prior to Haushofer’s career in “Geopolitik,” he was active German military who spent time in Japan studying their armed forces between 1908 and 1910. Haushofer’s interaction with both military officials and scholars during that time would later be accredited to the rise of geopolitical institutions in Japan during the 1920s and 1930s. His influence would also stretch as far as South America.

Following World War I, Haushofer retired as a major general in 1919, and took a professor position teaching geography at the University of Munich. Haushofer, like Ratzel before him, believed that German greatness was dependent upon Lebensraum:

“If the state was to prosper rather than just survive, the acquisition of ‘living space,’ particularly in the East, was vital and moreover achievable with the help of potential allies such as Italy and Japan.”

According to Haushofer, if Germany was to grow into a world power, and rebound from the losses of the WWI defeat, its leadership would need to be thoughtful of five essential elements:

  • Physical location
  • Resources
  • Territory
  • Morphology
  • Population

Haushofer’s own geopolitical theories promoted the concept of “pan regions,” which argued that Germany and other state powers, such as Japan, should develop distinct geopolitical strategies that focus on separate regions. To do so was to carve up the map and become neighbors in world domination rather than interfering within each state’s territory of interest. For Haushofer, his geopolitical focus was to the East and Africa.Continue reading“Geopolitics: How Maps Help Us Understand History, Predict the Future – Pt. 2, by Brian Miller”





The Editors’ Quote of the Day:

“He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels.

He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;

I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name.

Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.

Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.

Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown.

Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name.

He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.” – Rev. 3: 5-13  (KJV)





Geopolitics: How Maps Help Us Understand History, Predict the Future – Pt. 1, by Brian Miller

Editor’s Introductory Note: The following guest article was first posted by Ammo.com. It is re-posted with permission. It appealed to me because–like the author–I adhere to the Geographic Detriminist school of history. – JWR

“It is not often that nations learn from the past, even rarer that they draw the correct conclusions from it.” – Henry Kissinger

American students are notoriously bad at geography, and have been for some time. In 2002, for instance – the year after the 9/11 attacks – only 17% of American students could find Afghanistan on a map. In 2016, less than one third were able to score a minimal pass of 66% on the National Geographic Global Literacy Survey. In 2015, the United States Government Accountability Office reported that 75% of eighth grade students don’t even know what geography is.

Picture your old-school geography class. More likely than not, it was a boring subject requiring rote memorization of global factoids, U.S. state names, and their capitals. This does American students a disservice, because an appreciation for the hidden power of geography helps one make sense of seemingly random historical tidbits, more accurately predict the future, and see beyond political rhetoric to what actually matters among nation-states.

When contemplating geography’s usefulness in better understanding our world, consider the following:

  1. Why is it important to the state to get a handle on its subjects and their environments, i.e., through long-established practices like land registries and the creation of permanent last names? Or more recent examples such as the census bureau, the passport system, the DMV, birth and death certificates, or just registering to vote?
  2. Why is the state seemingly always the enemy of “people who move around,” i.e., nomads and pastoralists, hunter-gatherers, Gypsies, vagrants, homeless people, iterants, runaway slaves, and serfs? All have always been a thorn in the side of the state, and efforts to permanently settle these mobile peoples seem to rarely succeed.

The answers to these questions are straightforward when the classic imperatives of the state are known – and these are taxation, conscription, and the prevention of rebellion.Continue reading“Geopolitics: How Maps Help Us Understand History, Predict the Future – Pt. 1, by Brian Miller”