Black Powder for Self-Reliance – Part 1, by M.B.

Introductory Disclaimer:
Making black powder, while safe in the author’s experimental experience, can be dangerous. The author and do not endorse making black powder, and you do so at your own risk. Making black powder could also be in violation of the laws in your jurisdiction. You are responsible for compliance with all laws in your area. Neither the author, nor, are responsible for your use of the information in this article. The processes described herein are therefore for informational purposes only.

Safety Note:
Black powder can be dangerous if there is a gap between the powder and the projectile, when the firearm is loaded. When loading a muzzle loading firearm, be sure to seat the projectile firmly, so there is no empty space above the powder. This includes cap-and-ball revolvers, which can have no space between the powder and the ball or bullet, although wads can be used to fill the space when a light powder charge is used. When loading black powder cartridges, there must be no empty space inside the cartridge. You may need to use a wadding or other “filler” over the powder to take up the space inside the case.


This article is intended to show the potential usefulness of black powder to preppers, especially in times of ammo shortages and gun bans, and to show how easy it is to make almost everything you need to keep a black powder firearm running, just about indefinitely. Please understand the repeated safety warnings: black powder behaves differently from smokeless powder, and knowing its unique characteristics is essential. You are strongly advised to exercise caution and to seek out a good black powder manual before venturing into black powder shooting for the first time.


In a time of inexpensive AR-15s and plentiful ammo, it may seem silly to bother with black powder. It’s messy and will invite moisture and corrosion if not cleaned promptly. Black powder does not produce high velocities, and its low pressures and fouling make it incompatible with most semiautomatic firearms. It also produces a substantial amount of smoke. Outside of hunters and reenactors, many people look at black powder firearms as range toys with no applications as “serious” firearms.

On the other hand, just a few years ago, many of us were affected by an ammunition “drought,” in which .22 LR, 9mm Parabellum, and many other common types of ammunition were in extremely short supply. When ammo was found, it was often for sale at scalper’s prices. Reloading components — especially smokeless powders — were also scarce, as desperate gun owners resorted to reloading as their only source of ammunition.

Such times may come again, and without warning. Even as we see high-profile acts of violence with firearms which fit the narrative of the mainstream media and the Left (but I repeat myself), we are seeing more pushes for gun control. Attacks such as the mass shooting in El Paso will be used as justification to try to take away gun rights. Even if unsuccessful, the efforts can spawn buying panics that can result in sudden shortages of guns, magazines, ammo, and reloading supplies.

During the Great Obama Ammo Troubles (GOAT), I was able to keep shooting with black powder, since percussion caps were still available in my area, as were black powder substitutes, such as Pyrodex. I was able to conserve my stock of centerfire ammunition and smokeless powder by shooting black powder arms and by using black powder — or a substitute — in cartridges (I had stocked up on primers before the drought) for some centerfire firearms.

Even if there are no more mass murders with firearms, those days of scarcity could easily come again. Virtually every Democrat candidate for President in 2020 has made statements about wanting to ban a wide range of firearms. Some want door-to-door confiscation, while others prefer to confiscate firearms through Australian-style mandatory “buy backs” (confiscation, with compensation paid for by taxpayers). One former Democrat candidate from California even suggested using nuclear weapons on gun owners who defied the power of the State.

What will you do when gun store shelves are bare, and “gun shows” offer little more than tables of gun parts, knives and beef jerky? How will you stretch your finite stock of ammunition and reloading supplies, while continuing to use firearms to train, to hunt, and in necessary tasks, such as pest and predator elimination?

Black powder won’t work well in your Glock or in your AR-15, but in the right applications, black powder is surprisingly useful and effective. The firearms used in wars until the late 19th Century, those used in the winning of the American West, and the guns people relied upon in countless instances of self-defense, were all powered by black powder. The truth is that black powder firearms are powerful, accurate and very capable, if their limitations are understood and allowed for.

Moreover, black powder lends itself to “do it yourself” shooting. Many of the essentials can be homemade, often for very low prices. More on that, later.

First, let’s look at how black powder could be used to address some of the possible needs of people who wish  to be more self-reliant in the event of some future catastrophe. We’ll examine defense, hunting, and long-range shooting.


“For its size and weight nothing is so deadly as the round ball of pure lead when driven at fairly good velocity….Major R. E. Stratton and Samuel H. Fletcher told me the .36 Navy with full loads was a far better man killer than any .38 Special they had ever seen used in gun fights.” – Elmer Keith, Sixguns, page 211

Uncapped Blackpowder Revolver CylinderMost of your choices in black powder handguns are six-shot cap-and-ball revolvers, but careful shooters generally only load five. Cap-and-ball revolvers use loose powder or paper “cartridges” of black powder in the chambers of the cylinder, commonly topped with a round ball. Most revolvers feature a built-in rammer to seat the ball and press it firmly against the powder. Percussion caps are then seated on nipples on the rear of the cylinder.

The late Elmer Keith wrote about the surprising effectiveness of cap-and-ball revolvers in his classic book: Sixguns. More recently, Mike Cumpston and Johnny Bates, in their excellent book, Percussion Revolvers, reported velocities of over 1,100 feet per second (fps) with a .454 round ball fired from a Remington New Model Army cap-and-ball revolver, a type of gun that was used by the North and, in smaller numbers, by the South in the U.S. Civil War.

People shooting black powder in cartridges will find more convenience and reliability — especially in wet weather — and in easier and faster loading and unloading. I recommend revolvers from the black powder era, as they are generally easier to clean, but some modern revolvers, such as the Ruger SP-101, GP-100 and Super Redhawk series, can be cleaned of black powder fouling without undue trouble. [JWR Adds:  I generally recommend using stainless steel guns (if available) when shooting black powder. In case there is any delay in cleaning, these are much less likely to suffer from corrosion.)

Most black powder long guns from the time of powder and patched ball are limited to one or two shots, although a few guns, like the revolving carbines, offer more firepower. The lever actions designed in the era of black powder in cartridges are very capable defensive rifles that are still among the go-to choices in places where semi-auto rifles are banned. These include the strong, handy Winchester 1892 or the fast and smooth Winchester 1873.

Double barrel, break-open shotguns were originally made for black powder. Whether side-by-side or over/under, they work very well with black powder shells and are fairly easy to clean as most of the fouling goes down the barrels. Modern, pump-action shotguns are simple and easy to clean, and their robust actions can handle black powder fouling fairly well. Shotgun performance is not significantly degraded when using black powder, as black powder velocities are similar to typical shotgun velocities, and good patterns can be achieved with careful loading. However, the high burning temperature of black powder can shorten the life of plastic shells.


Black powder hunting is fairly popular for some good reasons. One reason is that muzzle loading rifles and shotguns work well at typical hunting distances. Some hunters take up black powder for a longer hunting season. Others may enjoy the challenge of having just one or two shots, and they focus on the skills of getting close to game and making an accurate first shot.

Of particular interest are the replicas of the Sharps rifles. The early ones were breechloaders which used paper cartridges. They are popular today and are used in hunting, target shooting, and Civil War re-enacting.

Hunting with back powder cartridges is hardly a handicap at all. A lever action in .45-70, for example, can take just about any game in North America with black powder ammo, though a cartridge like .32-20 would be a better choice for small game. Reproduction single shots like the Sharps (which were made for black powder cartridges in the later models), or more recent designs, such as the H&R Handi-Rifle, are also useful game getters, as long as the rifle cartridge chosen is one that works well with black powder.

As already mentioned, shotgunners face some challenges with black powder, but good results are possible with both muzzle loading or with “modern” shotgun shells loaded with black powder. Some plastic hulls may not last through multiple reloadings, since black powder burns at a higher temperature than many smokeless powders.


The current resurgence in long-range shooting includes black powder. Don’t believe it? Check out the Matthew Quigley Buffalo Rifle Match (, held annually outside Forsyth, Montana. Though many use smokeless powder, black powder is encouraged, especially for those competing with antique rifles. Most categories in the match require use of iron sights, and targets include a “buffalo” at 805 yards!

Still not convinced? Try reading about Billy Dixon and his “Mile-Long Shot” (later measured at over 1,500 yards by a US Army survey team) with a .50 Sharps rifle, at the Second Battle of Adobe Walls on June 27, 1874. Modest velocities with heavy lead bullets mean rather dramatic trajectories, but long range accuracy is possible!

(To be continued tomorrow, in Part 2.)


  1. “However, the high burning temperature of black powder can shorten the life of plastic shells.”

    The remedy for plastic shells are full length brass case- shells, yet there is another way as well. These must however be drilled out to accept the 204 shot shell primers. Pryodex is the easiest and safest substitue that could be easier to find, but FF is the black power to use. FFF is too fine and fast and may be used calibers less than 50, such as .410 shotgun. Reloading using either the high or low brass part of modern plastic shells, the plastic removed, leaving the brass that holds a 204 primer, the shotgun can be then load from the breech, just like a muzzle loader. Load data is in drams can be converted to grains of power, yet black power is loaded not by weight, but by volume. Black powder loaded by volume, ideally could have the lead shot loaded by the same volumn measuring device, to provide the best pattern. Too little shot, and there could be a hole ‘blown’ in the pattern. And lead ball could be created over a camp fire.

    Because 12 or 20 guage is so prevelent, I believe it is worth knowing how to use the most versatile firearm you may already have, and that is your breach loaded 12 ga that could be any shotgun, be it a single shot NEF, Stevens, or even Remington 870.
    I’d do my homework throughly before try this at home.

    1. has reloading kits for 22lr,22mag,precussion cap makers,and a four component primer compound to reload primers and percussion caps. These will help you to be a self sufficient reloader in the event that there becomes a time when ammunition becomes unavailable or very limited. Flintlock firearms are also a good option and were state of the art for more than 200 years. YouTube has a lot of information on making modern primers for cartridges.

  2. Question for the author: have you loaded original black powder metallic cartridges like .30-30 WCF, .45 Colt and .45-70 govt with black powder and modern primers with good and SAFE results?

  3. The .30-30 was never a black powder cartridge, it was the first smokeless powder cartridge but the designation was for the folks used to BP designations.

  4. If you need percussion caps for a muzzle loader and don’t have them, you might try finding a Tap-O-Cap cap maker. You take a strip of aluminum from a pop can, slip it in to the device, strike it with a hammer and out pops a perfectly formed cap. Add a punched out toy cap pistol cap (like the rolls of caps I used to play with) and gently place in the cap with a small punch or whatever. Works very well with sometimes a misfire if it is damp. I bought mine at Dixie Gun Works. Not a bad backup device.

  5. I’ve tried black powder in a .357 magnum without problems. The best cartridges for black powder are either straight-walled or have a slight shoulder/taper, like the .38-40, .44-40, etc. Mike Venturino writes about how “smoky” .45 Colt is because of its straight cases: the empties come out looking grungy because they don’t seal the chamber completely the way the old black powder cartridges like .38-40 do.

    Modern, bottleneck cartridges are generally a poor choice, as you’ll have trouble getting the case full.

    The one safety note with black powder cartridges: the case must not have any air space in it! You can use wads or other things that take up space, but most of us fill the case enough that the powder will be compressed about 1/16″ when the bullet is seated.

    Black powder gives lower pressure than smokeless, in most cases. It should be safe to load a modern firearm, like a .357 Mag. or a .44 Mag. or .45 Colt with black powder, as long as you leave no empty space in the shell.

    Pete’s right about the empties. Drop them in a jug or jar of water, preferably with some NON-AMMONIA Windex in it or a little dish detergent. A lot of bp cartridge shooters keep this container with them at the range and put them in right after shooting, to keep the fouling from attracting moisture that attacks the brass, and to make cleaning much easier later.

    Tunnel Rabbit is right about powder size: my FFFg powder is suitable for calibers up to around .45 or .50. I have some brass hulls, and I’m looking forward to working up loads for a single shot .410. It’s actually a very inexpensive cartridge to load for, and the brass shells use pistol primers, IIRC.

    Most of my black powder experience is with arms designed for it, like the Remington New Model Army in the lead photo.

  6. Tunnel Rabbit is right about powder vs caliber: FFFg powder is suitable for “smaller” calibers…up to .45 or .50 caliber. I have some .410 all-brass shells that I’m looking forward to trying with black powder in a single shot.

    Black powder is safe in modern cartridge guns, as long as you load the cartridges with NO AIR SPACE IN THE CARTRIDGE. Most people full the case enough that seating the bullet compresses the powder slightly, about 1/16th of an inch. You don’t want to crush the powder. I’ve loaded .357 Magnum with black powder with no problems. Black powder — loaded correctly — produces lower pressures than a modern gun is made to handle.

    Best cartridges are straight-walled, or the slightly tapered cartridges of the black powder era, like .32-20, .38-40, .44-40, or .45-70. Straight cases may not seal the chamber well with bp pressures, resulting in “smoked” cases. Some shooters anneal their cases before starting with bp for this reason.

    Pete’s right about putting cases in water — maybe with a little dish detergent or NON-AMMONIA Windex in it. This keeps the bp salts from attracting moisture and attacking your brass. A lot of shooters bring a water jug or jar to the range. It makes case cleaning easier later. By the way, the water will be full of bp fouling and will be nasty. Dump it outside, not in the bathroom sink!

    Most of my black powder shooting has been with arms made for it, like the Remington New Model Army I’m shooting in the lead photo.A

    1. To quickly clarify for those already in the know, and to verify this method with those more experienced. As this pertains to use in a shotgun, use the black powder type, or weight of the various substitutes not to exceed widely accepted maximum load data in drams, and weight of the shot.

      Loading by weight will make the load consistent from shot to shot, thus be more accurate. However BP does not make a good precision load because of moisture content, and other variables. Once one has settled on a good load, we can make our own dipper, and load by volume. The old rule for FF for shotgun is powder charge measured by volume, should be about the same as the shot if loaded by only way they could way back then, by volume to produce the best shot pattern possible. Too much powder, or not enough shot, will cause a hole in the pattern. Loading by volume in this day and age is not only field expedient, but good enough for BP in a shotgun, once the load is calibrated to original BP loads.

      We can use modern reloading techniques, and modern BP equivalents to improve accuracy and reliability in shot patterns, and it also allows us to use the various BP equivalents that are Goex FF to 777, and everything else, and some that can be substantially lighter, or more efficient than real BP. My experience is limited to only some experimentation with shotgun. I wish I had time to learn more, but perhaps someone can speed up the process…. Please correct me if I am off base here.

  7. I have loaded 12 ga shells with BP many times, works great.. I used new once fired Win AA’s, but only one time, and with a 1oz shot wad.. They will do very well out to the average range of standard shotgun range.. but your advise on getting the wad down on the powder is a primary objective.. I used 35-40 lbs of wad pressure, and a 209 shot gun primer.

  8. For what it is worth the 303 British was originally a Black powder round with a 200 grain round nose lead bullet on top of a slightly compressed 3 F loading. The loading that stopped the Zulu’s you know 🙂

    I’ve done it for reenactments and sport hunting, works very well. Also I have loaded 30-30’s in black powder in much the same way as British 303. More than a few White Tails fell to that loading. Yes, it was the “First” smokeless powder but has plenty of case for 3F black powder. Again lead round nose loads. The British Army used hot water from their field tea pots as primary cleaning.

    A Remington 44 Army loaded with conical bullets and full military loads I have used to hunt NC wild Hogs successfully. Never chrono’ed it but it has plenty of wallop.

    And yes shotguns can be reloaded with it also. So it “Burns” plastic shot shells? I reload the cheap 7.5 shot bulk loads. Makes a decent slug load.

  9. Re: non-ammonia windex

    I was taught to clean BP with cheap auto windshield fluid, sounds like the same thing but you can probably get the windshield fluid cheaper.

  10. If you purchase the 1858 Army (not Navy) revolver, you can load all six chambers because the hammer has a resting notch between two of the chambers. Don’t purchase the Navy revolvers from Civil War replicas due to it needing a tool to break down the gun. The Army is what we shoot and has once step to remove the cylinder.

    I’m used to shooting a .45 magnum but be sure not to pack overage in powder due to the gun blowing off your hands.

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