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Spices for Long Term Storage, by Upper Midwesterner

This isn’t going to be just another food storage article. For excellent advice on that subject, start by exploring  the SurvivalBlog archives and the LDS web site. [1] But there’s a related topic that I felt was worthy of discussion.

It wasn’t that long ago that .22 rimfire ammo disappeared from shelves, and conversations about PMAGs in stock sounded pretty similar to claims about Yeti and the Loch Ness Monster – utterances viewed by most listeners with great skepticism. We live in a ‘just in time’-supplied world, where almost anything can quickly affect the price – or the availability – of many products we’re used to seeing on our store’s shelves.

If you bake, you’ve probably noticed the massive increase in the price of vanilla. Last year, a hurricane in Madagascar so damaged the crop that today’s vanilla prices have nearly doubled. Vanilla, like many other spices we rely on, still come from isolated places on the globe. Any environmental, economic or political disruption could cause them to rapidly disappear from our markets – perhaps for a very long time. More than our recipes would be affected, because some of these things are essential components of food preservation as well.

The World of Spices

While we can locally source many things we might use in cooking, here are some thoughts on specific items that come from overseas and that couldn’t easily be replaced.

  1. Peppercorns [2], of any kind, come from the fruit of the Piper Nigrum vine that grows primarily in Asia. (Peppervine, Ampelopsis Arborea, [3] grows throughout much of the US, but it’s an entirely different plant.) Pepper is an essential ingredient in most cooking, as well as a component of many pickling and preserving methods. Don’t forget to stockpile a pepper mill.
  2. While some claim that cinnamon can be grown domestically [4], most of the cinnamon in the world comes from [5] Indonesia, China, Sri Lanka, India, Brazil, and the Caribbean. Cinnamon can be ground easily using a coffee grinder. Cinnamon takes two forms, Cassia and Ceylon. [6] Each has a slightly different flavor, and recipes in the US and Canada are written for Cassia. Ceylon, the dominant form in Europe and Mexico, is more fragile and easier to break. Cassia generally looks like a folded stick of rawhide, while Ceylon has more of a pumice-like structure. Cassia is potentially harmful [7]if consumed in large quantities. What we call ‘Saigon Cinnamon’ is Cassia.
  3. Cloves [8] are the dried, immature buds of an evergreen tree that grows in India and Madagascar. Cloves are a powerful spice, serving as an accent [9] in a wide range of foods from Indian cuisine to holiday hams. Cloves are also a necessary part of many pickling recipes [10]. Clove oils are a powerful topical anesthetic, particularly useful for tooth aches. Cloves can also be substituted for tobacco as a smoking product. Cloves can be used whole, grated or ground.
  4. Nutmeg [11] is the seed of a tropical evergreen tree. Originating [12] in Indonesia, nutmeg was subsequently cultivated in the West Indies where most of the production still continues today. Nutmeg [13] is actually the interior part of the seed, with the shell being the spice known as mace [14]. Nutmeg is an essential spice for baking, soups and meats and can be used in a wide range of Whole nutmeg is grated rather than ground. Caution, nutmeg is capable of being abused as a hallucinogenic. [15]
  5. Although your brain might register chili and Tex-Mex food when you smell it, cumin is actually native to Egypt. [16] While cumin can be grown in the US, the bulk of the product comes from India, North Africa and China. When ground, cumin’s potency begins to fade within a year. Cumin also has a nasty habit of blending in with its neighbors in the spice cabinet. Cumin is particularly useful for Indian and Middle Eastern recipes [17], and is a great addition to potatoes, root vegetables, beans and lentils.
  6. Most vanilla comes from Madagascar, although New Guinea is rapidly rivaling their production. Vanilla is an extraordinarily complicated orchid to grow commercially that requires hand fertilization [18] to mature. I’m told there’s no distinguishable difference in taste between authentic and artificial vanilla when used in recipes. That said, there’s an enormous difference in terms of storage. Real vanilla extract – which usually has an alcohol content of 35 percent – lasts indefinitely. Imitation vanilla is only good for a year. Real vanilla is very expensive at the moment, and there’s a number of ‘buyer beware’ warnings out there such as: Never buy anything with a foreign label, look closely to make sure the product specifically says ‘extract’ as opposed to ‘flavoring’, and that the product contains alcohol as that’s a necessary component of the real thing. Costco vanilla is well regarded and relatively inexpensive ($30), but the internet says that Hawaiian Vanilla Co, [19] and Nielsen-Massey [20] Madagascar Bourbon Vanilla are the best.
  7. Cardamom [21] is the seed pod of a leafy tropical plant. Cardamom has a place in recipes [22] from the orient to Scandinavia, and can be used in many different ways. [23] Found in foods and drinks, you’ll notice the flavor when you taste it. There are actually two forms [24] of cardamom, Elettaria [25] and Amomum [26] – commonly ‘green’ and ‘brown.’ Cardamom plants seem to prefer higher altitudes and the leading producers of cardamom are Nepal and Guatemala. Both forms of cardamom can be obtained as a whole seed pod, of which all portions might have a use.
  8. Allspice [27] is actually a single spice, not a spice combination. [28] Allspice can be found in many roles and in diverse recipes [29] across the globe. Allspice shows up in sausages, meats, gravies and baked goods. Allspice is often the ‘secret ingredient’ that disappointed consumers notice when it’s left out of the recipe. Allspice is grown in the West Indies and South America.
  9. Turmeric [30] While the effectiveness of turmeric as an herbal medicine can be debated, there’s no doubt it’s essential to taste buds across the world – especially in curries. [31] Turmeric root can be found in stores, but I’m suspicious that any attempt to dry and store it whole would fail. Like ginger, I would argue it’s best to buy turmeric already ground. The bulk of commercial turmeric comes from India, Sri Lanka, the East Indies, Fiji, and Australia.
  10. Ginger has been used for centuries to spice foods and drinks, and is also claimed to have medicinal properties. [32] Likely native to lower Asia, ginger can thrive in warm and humid environments. Ginseng [33] is not ginger but can be used in many of the same ways. While Ginseng grows in the upper Midwest, it’s a difficult resource to cultivate. Most commercial ginger today is grown in Africa and South America.

There are other spices that are produced closer to home, but that might be seriously impacted by any insult to global trade.

  1. Bay Leaves. [34] The Bay Laurel Tree [34] is native to the Mediterranean, but can be grown in the US where there’s a warm climate. Locally, the tree may be called Pepperwood or Myrtlewood. They make lovely indoor trees for many people. Personally, I’ve managed to kill them every time I’ve owned one. While I don’t really understand the necessity of this spice (I’m not sure I can taste it), it’s found in too many recipes [35] to apparently live without. People write that this is one spice where there’s a significant difference between using fresh off the tree versus dried. [36]
  2. Mustard Seeds [37]. Many of the mustard seeds used in Indian cooking and pickling spices are the same that you can use to grow mustard greens. When people mention mustard, red blooded Americans probably visualize awaiting hot dog buns, but there’s a lot more you can do with this spice. [38] Caution: When cooking with whole mustard seeds make sure they get hot enough to pop. If they don’t, your meal will probably still taste fine, but you’re in for a bad surprise later.
  3. Coriander [39]. Coriander and cilantro aren’t exactly the same thing. In the US, ‘coriander’ refers to the seeds, but we call the stems and leaves cilantro. Elsewhere in the world the entire plant is referred to as coriander. [40] The two spices are not interchangeable [41] in recipes. Coriander’s native range is the Eastern Mediterranean to Pakistan, but it can be grown almost anywhere as an annual. Coriander has a number of medicinal and other useful properties [42]. Both cilantro and coriander taste like soap to a small subset of human beings. [43]
  4. Paprika [44] is rendered from parts of bell peppers, but what we use generally comes from overseas. Not surprisingly, a great deal of paprika comes from Hungary and Spain. Paprika can be made at home, but it takes a lot of work. [45] An incredibly useful and adaptable spice, [46] paprika would be hard to live without.
  5. Celery seed [47]. Celery seed is a powerful spice used in everything from sauerkraut to Bloody Marys. Celery can be found across the globe, particularly in very moist, nutrient rich soils. While it’s not difficult to grow [48], I know very few people who actually do, which invites the prospect of scarcity in bad times.
  6. Cayenne Pepper [49] originated in South America and is a powerful additive to almost anything that needs heat. It simply wouldn’t be Cajun, Creole, or Mexican cooking without cayenne.

Individually, the loss of one or more of these spices might not seem like much, but without them we couldn’t make many of our favorite spice combinations. Simply consider these recipes: Garam Masala [50], Curry Powder [51], Chili Powder [52], BBQ Spice/Rub [53], Pickling Spice [54], DIY Old Bay Seasoning [55], DIY Lawrey’s Seasoning [56], Poultry Seasoning [57], Adobo Seasoning [58], Jamaican Jerk Seasoning [59], Taco Seasoning [60], Apple Pie Spice [61] or Pumpkin Pie Spice [62]. It is cheap and good insurance to lay in a stock of spices now.

 

How to Store Spices

Whole spices don’t spoil [63], but they do begin to lose their flavor after four years. Ground spices fade in less than half that time.

The same wisdom applies to storing spices as to most things: Store your spices in a cool dark place and in a sealed container. Oxidation is the greatest enemy of spices. I haven’t been able to find any authoritative research on the relative advantages of keeping spices in the freezer. One school of thought says that any advantages will be offset by the exposure to moisture [64] when the container is taken out of the freezer and opened. Others, of course, claim this is an excellent practice. [65]

Glass containers protect the contents but make sure they also have strong air tight lids [66]. To guard against cross contamination of odors and flavors, avoid putting bags of different spices in the same sealed container. Some people even take the trouble to vacuum seal spices in mason jars, which makes good sense when maintaining a large reservoir, then refilling smaller containers for the pantry. Anyone who’s cooked knows the magical properties of those small glass spice jars, seemingly capable of bouncing off tile floors without breaking. The weak point is too often the plastic lid. In any event, better to routinely handle a small quantity rather than risk the larger container.

Instinct teaches to buy in bulk, but with spices there’s a caution: A study in the Kansas City area in 2014 [67] found that 4 out of 10 packages of bulk spices were contaminated by heavy metals, toxins or bacteria. These included some nasty bacteria such as Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas. The Food and Drug Administration found [68] that 12 percent of all imported spices were contaminated in some way. Black pepper, thyme, oregano and turmeric were most associated with salmonella contamination, sawdust was frequently added to [69] turmeric, paprika and ginger, and lead chromate was occasionally added to turmeric as well. Generally, they found that cinnamon is fine.

Where to Buy Spices

All that said, this really isn’t news. There have been stories like this at least since 1941, [70] and for good or ill, the FDA continues to [71] engage in testing for the sake of food safety. While cooking the spices in food to 160 degrees will kill any native bacteria, most of us have the habit of adding spices after the cooking is done which would reintroduce any bacteria back into the food. It is best to buy from reputable vendors.

One of the best known vendors is Penzey’s Spices, [72] but I don’t buy from them. My personal choice, as otherwise Penzey’s has a great reputation for quality, but I’m partial to The Spice House [73]. Though the owners of both businesses are related, the owners of The Spice House have made it a point to leave the politics behind. [74] Costco products are also excellent, as well as Spice Islands [75] which can usually be found in most grocery stores. If you’re buying from a bulk supplier online, it might be wise to consider one that supplies restaurants. [76] They’ve got a lot riding on food safety.

How Much to Store

While there are many food calculators [77] on the web that help you estimate your long term storage needs, far less bandwidth is dedicated to the things that will make your beans, rice and tuna fish palatable. Relying on popular wisdom would leave you with salt, sugar, honey and very little else.

The historical spice trade drove the world economy from the 15th century to modern times, altering the economic shape of the entire planet [78]. Then, pepper was the greatest bulk commodity, followed by cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. Generally speaking, Americans consume approximately 3.7 pounds of spices each year [79], but it’s difficult to break that down any further. In the world of chefs, the ratio of salt to pepper [80] used in the kitchen is around 3-to-6 parts salt to one part pepper.

Most calculators suggest storing about 6 pounds of salt per person, per year. All things considered, one pound of pepper would seem about right. From that point on its mostly personal preferences and guesswork, but my two cents are that a shift to food storage staples would benefit from more spices. With that in mind, consider storing – per person/per year – one pound of cumin, cinnamon, and paprika; 8 ounces of vanilla, ginger, allspice, mustard seeds and turmeric; 4 ounces of nutmeg (about 20 nuts), cloves, cardamom, coriander, bay leaves, celery seed and cayenne pepper.

[JWR Adds: If you over-estimate the quantity of spices that you need, then just consider yourself well-stocked for barter or charity.]

Final Thoughts

Food should be a centerpiece of emergency planning. In fact, it’s the only prep that can be mastered by anyone: young or old, the robust or infirm. Done right, it not only provides peace of mind, but the practice of food rotation and buying in bulk probably saves time and money in the long run too. While the rated shelf life of dried legumes [81] might be several years, better to rotate them into regular meal planning. Americans don’t eat many beans and our bodies might not appreciate a quick conversion to a ‘legume heavy’ diet. One way to rotate these ingredients into your current consumption might be to try some traditional Indian recipes. [82] Indian food is heavily based on long term storage staples, and the flavor combinations are fascinating. If Indian cooking is in your wheelhouse, you might want to add fenugreek, asafetida and curry leaves to your storage inventory.

Unless you can meat, then banking proteins for long term food storage takes planning. Legumes, combined with rice or a grain, form a complete protein and are inexpensive and easy to store. A pressure cooker is your friend when it comes to preparing dried beans. [83] The electronic idiot proof ones — like The Instant Pot [84] – are a great introduction to pressure cooking, as well as a time saver. Think of it as a cross between a pressure cooker designed for middle school age children and a slow cooker.

“Be careful about reading health books. You may die of a misprint.” – Mark Twain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 Comments (Open | Close)

14 Comments To "Spices for Long Term Storage, by Upper Midwesterner"

#1 Comment By Comingstorm On April 23, 2019 @ 11:23 am

Very enjoyable article! Who knew (or even thought about)! Would definitely enjoy more in detail follow on articles. Maybe other reference or educational material. Brought to mind better have and not need…Thanks for taking the time. Also brought to mind JWR’s comment about needing more articles. Guess this one proves his point. The amount of knowledge us preppers have is staggering…share it! Will follow the comments. Thanks to one and all!

#2 Comment By Julie On April 23, 2019 @ 12:35 pm

Check out Azure Standard for vanilla, and nearly anything else you might want to store in your pantry.

azurestandard.com

Be sure to read their articles about their business.

#3 Comment By John Lee Pettimore On April 23, 2019 @ 12:50 pm

You can cheaply stock up on vanilla by getting beans on eBay, and extracting yourself in vodka or white rum. 2 beans (split down the middle) per 8 fluid ounces gives an excellent extract when allowed to sit for a couple of months.

#4 Comment By -Jed On April 23, 2019 @ 1:27 pm

Great article! This morning I have learned a lot about spices. Thank you.
Also, this article was written well and flowed beautifully.

#5 Comment By Jennifer On April 23, 2019 @ 1:42 pm

Nice article, and very helpful to include recommended storage amounts.

Many spices have medicinal uses. At PrepSchoolDaily (dot blogspot dot com), the blogger there has written on the medicinal uses of pepper, cayenne, and ginger. (March 18, February 4, December 3). Fortunately, we can at least grow cayenne in this country. Ginger is apparently do-able as a houseplant. As far as pepper is concerned, we’d better all stockpile it to excess.

#6 Comment By Sam Van Meter On April 23, 2019 @ 3:30 pm

This is a great article! Informative and actionable.

#7 Comment By Florida Mom On April 23, 2019 @ 3:51 pm

Great article! Loved the spice information. Good idea on checking out restaurant supply – many times you can also find whole spices there. Thanks for taking the time to educate us.

#8 Comment By Sis On April 23, 2019 @ 4:08 pm

As the author mentioned, some people place their spices in canning jars and vacuum pack them for longer storage. I purchase most of my spices from Azure, too. I place the extra spices in jars and vacuum pack them along with herbs and spices that I grow and dehydrate. Placing them inside a cardboard box will keep them in the dark. Mine have lasted for years with very little loss of flavor.

#9 Comment By Kroneborge On April 23, 2019 @ 5:58 pm

Great article. And very much agreed. Some simple spices can make eating much more enjoyable.

I wonder if you can greenhouse any of these spices.

#10 Comment By Spamreader1 On April 23, 2019 @ 7:35 pm

Loved the article. Food for thought, wars have been fought over spices.

#11 Comment By Sheepdog On April 23, 2019 @ 9:55 pm

Bravo! Very informative article and I just went through all my spices today too! Timing is everything. The article was informative and provided resources to obtain spices. Nice job!

#12 Comment By Ducksheadfarm On April 24, 2019 @ 4:41 am

Did not know that Penzeys Spices ownership was a bunch of Trump haters. I have ordered from them for a long time. I am going to switch.

#13 Comment By Oldsourdough On April 24, 2019 @ 5:28 pm

Funny, there is a picture associated with the article of Red Chiles hanging from the side of a house drying, but no mention of them in the article. Red Chiles and the Chile powder that can be made from them once dried will add a lot of zing to any dish livening up even the most bland of foods. Red Chile also has potassium and vitamins A, B, and C, iron, magnesium, and is low sodium cholesterol free and fat free, so it can provide for some of the nutrients needed to stay healthy. It can be keep in a well sealed bottle, can, or in seal-able plastic bags. If keeping in plastic bags best to check on them every few months as the acidic nature may eat through the plastic.
Good to have as an all around spice.

#14 Comment By Edgewater On April 25, 2019 @ 5:55 pm

Agree re Penzey’s. I used to buy spices from them all the time – both online and retail store, but they got really in your face re gay marriage, well before Trump, so I moved on. A couple of other very good online sources for Spices is Atlantic Spice Co in Truro, MA, and Vitacost. Vitacost often has 20% off sales for food items if you spend $50 or more. They also carry all of Bob’s Red Mill line for very good prices, which are also eligible for the additional 20% off.