Preparedness Lessons from the 1930s – Part 1, by J. E.

It’s one or two years after an EMP attack and you are safely tucked away in your retreat somewhere in the middle of nowhere. Your storage foods have mostly been used and your high tech electronics is useless. The really bad stuff is mostly past. Now it’s try to stay fed and alive and pray that civilization as you know it is coming back. You’re going to have to work your environment to live. Ever wonder what life might be like to Homestead? What would it really be like to have no running water, electricity, sewer, newspaper or Internet? No supermarket or fire department close at hand?

I have a good imagination but I decided to talk to someone who would know first hand what it was like: my mother. She grew up on a homestead in the middle of Montana during the 1920s and 1930s. It was a two room Cottonwood cabin with the nearest neighbor three miles away. She was oldest, so she was in charge of her brother and sister by the time she was 9 years old. This was her reality; I feel there are lessons here for the rest of us.

There was a Majestic brand cookstove that used wood and coal. The first person up at four thirty A.M., usually her father, would start the fire for breakfast. Then he would go out to take care of the livestock while his wife made breakfast. For the kids, it was a comforting start to the day but your feet would get cold when you got out of bed. There was no sleeping in.

Firewood and Coal

A crosscut saw and axe was used to cut wood for the stove and after that experience, you got pretty stingy with the firewood because you know what it takes to replace it. The old timers say that it warms you when you cut it, when you split it, and again when you burn it. The homes that were typical on homesteads and ranches of the era were smaller with lower ceilings than modern houses just so they could be heated easier. The saw and axe were not tools to try hurrying with. You set a steady pace and maintained it. A man in a hurry with an axe may lose some toes or worse. One side effect of the saw and axe use is that you are continuously hungry and will consume a huge amount of food.

Usually in the fall of the year, a wagon load of coal would be purchased. It was used sparingly and had its own dangers as it was known to produce a lot of carbon monoxide. They were lucky in that there were coal seams within thirty miles and they could use their own wagon for pickup. Even so, it was a large undertaking: travel to and from, loading the wagon and then unloading by hand; it wasn’t unusual to take a week from start to completion. The coal was really appreciated when a Blue Norther came whistling through and everyone huddled by the stove. Of course, the regular chores at home still had to be done. No excuses.

Also in the fall of the year, people would scour the rivers and creeks looking for a bee tree and the honey they could harvest. Somehow, ‘free’ honey in the wild tastes sweeter. One enterprising man cut a back door into a bee tree so he didn’t have to destroy the hive to get the goodies.

Lights in the cabin were old fashioned kerosene lamps. It was the kid’s job to trim the wicks, clean the chimneys and refill the reservoirs. Candles were in use as well, but any breeze could snuff out the flame and the risk of fire from a dumped candle was much higher.

The privy was downhill from the house next to the corral and there was no toilet paper. Old newspaper, catalogs or magazines were used and in the summer a pan of barely warm water was there for hygiene. During a dark night, blizzard, or brown out from a dust storm, you followed the corral poles-no flashlights.

Spring Water

There were two springs close to the house that ran clear, clean, and cold water. The one right next to it was a “soft” water spring. It was great for washing clothes and felt smooth, almost slick, on your skin. If you drank from it, it would clean you out just as effectively as it cleaned clothes. Not all clean water is equal.

The second spring was a half mile from the cabin and it was cold, clear, and tasted wonderful. The spring itself was deep – an eight foot corral pole never hit bottom- and flowed through the year. It was from here that the kids would fill two barrels on a heavy duty sled with water for the house and the animals. They would lead the old white horse that was hitched to the sledge back to the buildings and distribute the water for people and animals. In the summer, they made two trips in the morning and maybe a third in the evening. In the winter, one trip in the morning before school and one in the evening after school before supper. They did this alone.

Cooking

Breakfast was a big meal because they’re going to be working hard. Usually there would be homemade sausage, eggs and either cornmeal mush or oatmeal. More food was prepared than what was going to be eaten right then. The extra food was left on the table under a dish towel and eaten as wanted during the day. When evening meal was cooked, any leftovers were reheated. The oatmeal or the mush was sliced and fried for supper. It was served with butter, syrup, honey or molasses.

The homemade sausage was from a quarter or half a hog. The grinder was a small kitchen grinder that clamped on the edge of a table and everybody took turns cranking. When all the hog had been ground, the sausage spice mix was added and kneaded in by hand. Then it was immediately fried into patties. The patties were placed, layer by layer, into a stone crock and covered with the rendered sausage grease. The patties were reheated as needed. The grease was used for gravies as well as re-cooking the patties. Occasionally a fresh slice of bread would be slathered with a layer of sausage grease and a large slice of fresh onion would top it off for quick sandwich. Nothing was wasted.

On special occasions, some of their protein came from dried fish or beef. Usually this had to be soaked to remove the excess salt or lye. Then it was boiled. Leftovers would go into hash, fish patties, or potato cakes.

Beans? There was almost always a pot of beans on the stove in the winter time, not so much in the summer as it was too easy for the beans on a cold stove to go sour. That pot of beans wasn’t just beans; usually leftover meat would be cut up and go in the mix to add flavor and variety.

The practice of leaving the food out for a noon snack also would lead to what was referred to as “Summer Complaint”, or as we would call it, diarrhea… which was probably a low level of food poisoning. The attitude was ‘So you have summer complaint? Don’t we all. Keep working.’
I’ll say it now, those were some tough people.

Chickens and a couple of milk cows provided needed food to balance the larder. They could not have supported a growing family without these two resources. The quality and volume of food from these resources was determined by how much work people put into them, especially the milk cows. Careful treatment, regular milking (you absolutely could not miss a milking session or it could ruin a good cow) and attention to hygiene was very necessary. The hygiene part was difficult to achieve when you consider the somewhat crude conditions, location of Bossie’s tail to the milk pail and the fact that warm fresh milk is great for growing any number of organisms.

Gardening

The kitchen garden ran mostly to root crops. Onion, turnip, rutabaga, potato and radishes grew under chicken wire. Rhubarb was canned for use as a winter tonic to stave off scurvy. Lettuce, corn, and other above ground crops suffered from deer, rats, and gumbo clay soil. Surprisingly, cabbage did well. The winter squash didn’t do much, only 2 or 3 gourds. Grasshoppers were controlled by the chickens and turkeys. There was endless hoeing.

Washing clothes required heating water on the stove, pouring it into three galvanized wash tubs-one for the homemade lye soap and scrub board, the other two for rinsing. Clothes were rinsed and wrung out by hand, then hung on a wire to dry in the air. Your hands became red and raw, your arms and shoulders sore beyond belief by the end of the wash. Wet clothing, especially wool, is heavy and the gray scum from the soap was hard to get out of the clothes.

Personal baths were in a galvanized wash tub screened by a sheet. In the winter it was difficult to haul, heat and handle the water so baths weren’t done often. Most people would do sponge baths. Youngest went first in the tub, then the women, then the men.

Everybody worked, including the kids. There were always more chores to be done than time in the day. It wasn’t just this one family; it was the neighbors as well. You were judged first and foremost by your work ethic and then your honesty. This was critical because if you were found wanting in either department, the extra jobs that might pay cash money, a quarter of beef, hog, or mutton would not be available. Further, the cooperation with your neighbors was the only assurance that if you needed help, you would get help. Nobody in the community could get by strictly on their own. A few tried. When they left, nobody missed them.
You didn’t have to like someone to cooperate and work with him or her.

Gatherings and Holidays

Several times a year people would get together for organized activities: barn raising, butcher bee, harvest, roofing, dance, or picnics. There were lots of picnics, usually in a creek bottom with cottonwoods for shade or sometimes at the church. Always, the women would have tables groaning with food, full coffee pots and, if they were lucky, maybe some lemonade. (Lemons were expensive and scarce) After the work (even for picnics, there was usually a project to be done first) came the socializing. Many times people would bring bedding and sleep out overnight, returning home the next day.

Christmas, Thanksgiving and birthdays were celebrated but the gifts were somewhat understated by todays comparison. There might be a shirt made from a flour sack, a homemade leather knife sheath, some colored thread or fancy buttons. The Christmas stocking might have an orange, or an apple, maybe nuts. Hard candy was always welcome. The holidays were made special by a batch of cinnamon rolls or special cookies. In the meantime, get those chores done first.

A half dozen families would get together for a butcher bee in the cold days of late fall. Cows were slaughtered first, then pigs, mutton, and finally chickens. Blood from some of the animals, usually cows, was collected in milk pails, kept warm on a stove to halt coagulation and salt added. Then it was canned for later use in blood dumplings, sausage or pudding. The hides were salted for later tanning; the feathers from the fowl were held for cleaning and used in pillows or mattresses. The skinned quarters of the animals would be dipped into cold salt brine and hung to finish cooling out so they could be taken home safely for processing. Nothing went to waste.

The most feared occurrence in the area was fire. If it got started, it wasn’t going out until it burned itself out. Kerosene lights, candles and wood stoves were not taken for granted as they could become deadly dangers. People could and did lose everything including their lives.

Hunting

The most used weapon was the .22 single shot Winchester with .22 Short cartridges. It was used to take the heads off pheasant, quail, rabbit and ducks. If you held low, the low powered round didn’t tear up the meat. The shooters, usually the kids, quickly learned sight picture and trigger control although they never heard those terms. If you took out five rounds of ammunition, then you’d better bring back the ammunition or a critter for the pot for each round expended. It was also a lot quieter and less expensive [in those days] than the .22 Long Rifle cartridges.

If you are trying to maintain a low profile, the odor of freshly baked bread can be detected in excess of three miles on a calm day. Especially by kids.

(To be concluded tomorrow, in Part 2.)

 




33 Comments

  1. my parents, who grew up in the 20’s and 30’s still did a lot of these things. In the 50’s I helped slaughter a couple hundred chickens for canning meat. Big family on the prairies who had great work ethic.
    I remember the big galvanized bathtub on the front porch and heating water on the wood stove to have a bath. No electricity until late 1950’s on the farm.

  2. A couple of takeaways from this great piece: Even in these rough times, water was gathered and hauled in quantities beyond the capacities of drip filters. Without a horse to aid water transport from the source to the point of use it would have been impossible for this family to live where they did. Without the natural water source, the homestead would not exist. There will be no such source in the cities.
    Grow it or store it….if you can’t grow it, buy it by the ton. Jettison that “one year supply” mantra from your life. I’ve bought pallets of rice from Costco. Sure, they stare, so what? Beans by the ton from elevators. 55 gallon steel drums are your friend.
    I visited a friend last week who has been living on his forklift batteries for 15 years, and wind/solar power. He tried L16 batteries at first, but they gave up in three years. Forklift batteries are by far, more cost efficient than “solar batteries”, and will last decades. I can see a wind turbine in my future!

    1. Yep, brother. Water is a most critical issue. We do well to heed Paul’s words. The weakness one has going without water is likely to lead to more problems. Stock up or find a nearby, reliable source today.

      Carry on

  3. Excellent remembrance! We often lapse into nostalgia when thinking of the self-sufficient lifestyle, forgetting that it was (and is) HARD WORK! My parents were born in 1920 and 21 – growing up in rural Georgia, they shared many of the same stories with me. My mom’s father, who hacked out a life for his family with his own two hands, saw nothing romantic about subsistence farming! The part that I find most assuring is that, notwithstanding the hard work and responsibilities, these folks did not sacrifice joy in their lives. Sometimes I feel that their joy was more authentic than ours, as it was EARNED, and focused on rare, but anxiously anticipated, social events and the beauty of God’s creation. My dear mother, who had precious few toys as a child, could walk through a forest and be entertained all day, simply by examining each little detail in wonder. She would make little people out of acorns and foliage – sometimes creating little towns that they could inhabit! I saw her do it even when she was 70 years old!

    This phenomenon is vividly recorded in the thin little book, “Letters of a Woman Homesteader”, by Elinore Pruitt Stewart. The hardships she faced in early 20th Century Wyoming would make many of us lie down and die today (after rifling through a bottle of Prozac!), but through it all, the joy that she experienced from her life is evident. It’s a good, short, read, that reminded me that love of life is not necessarily connected to property and leisure!

    I think this topic is worth contemplation – we need to be realistic about the workload and stressors associated with TEOTWAWKI (or even moving toward a more self-sufficient lifestyle while the TV still works), but remember, our forefathers did it without total loss of the joy of life. We can too!

  4. The life described by the writer is an instant replay of the lifestyle lived and discussed by my father-in-law. His family homesteaded 17 acres of oceanfront property in Alaska. They built their own road hauling gravel from a glacier one truck load at a time. They captured and sold wolverine and black bear and patented a shipping container to ship them to zoos. (The Smithsonian bought the rights to that container design and sent them annual stipend). They hunted eagle and seal for the federal bounty and used the funds to build a custom 47 foot fishing boat and float. Hauled ice from the nearby glacier. They had a large garden and hunted deer. Had cold cellar and processed meat in their custom screened meat house. I could go on.

    I asked my father-in-law to reflect on his upbringing; he said it was an incredibly hard life but looking back didn’t realize how much fun it was.

  5. This brings back memories of my early childhood in rural SW Wisconsin. Our family farm was not quite this rustic or remote but the patterns are the same Seasonal garden over 2 acres and 80 chickens and slaughtering older non milk producing cows and calves, hogs and chickens as needed in the fall and large canning operations getting ready for winter. We kids would pick gooseberries and we had a strawberry patch. A windmill and pumpjack and cistern to provide water. As I was pruning some trees yesterday I was remembering at 8 or 9 years being sent up the tree with ropes fall trees and the hours of brushing and sawing and splitting firewood for our hot water radiator boiler in the farmhouse. We used both tractors and on occasion a old horse with my grandfathers harnesses to pull logs out of the woods nearby. I remember riding on the horse grain drill being pulled by grandpa on a old Massey tractor making sure the bins of seed were flowing. It is a life that without some modern infrastructure and “Horsepower” would not be possible for most people. In SHTF scenario not many folks will know how to work with horses nor have the ability to use them for toil… assuming any can survive being eaten by hungry humans. I store food and lots of crop and garden seeds… just pretty sure my body wouldn’t allow the hard labor it would take… I am looking at more permaculture to supplement and support. As far as milking cows and goats I did that for years including making a lot of cheese at home. I know how… but don’t want to do that again.. unless I had no choice.

  6. My Grandparents raised ten kids on such a homestead farm in Tennessee. Funny, none of the kids became farmers.
    Grandpa’s farm would have been the perfect Bug Out Location as it had all the features mentioned, gardens, orchards, pastures, wells, ponds, etc. But the government in their infinite wisdom put the Interstate thru about a mile away from the farm and its too exposed for Post-SHTF use.

  7. Several years ago I had an opportunity to visit with a 101 year old lady who lived near Roundup, Montana during the depression. She had nine brothers. All of them died during that period. As I remember, she had a sister who survived. Never forget her telling me how they canned gophers (ground squirrels) for winter meat. Only the tough survived. People are not like that now. Prepping may get some folks through for the first year or two, after that….

  8. Slightly pendantic but important:
    Unless that tree had removable frames then that gentleman still destroyed the integrity of the hive to get the comb. The old woven bee hives you see in paintings worked the same way.

    Second, your family was still dependant on commerce for salt and flour, and the coal. I point this out because people forget it somehow when they plan out little feifdoms.

  9. My Mom was born in 27 on a farm outside Waukomis, OK. Everything you said here was still true in her time and location. The Christmas stocking present of an orange was a very special treat. The house walls were stuffed with prairie grass for insulation. The barn her Dad built lasted over 100 years, until some crack head burned it up while making a batch in the early 2000s.

  10. Thanks for the good comments. I will add one thing about my mother, and it is important. She always approached new things with interest and almost glee, and if it was a problem to be solved it had her full attention. Her attitude to problems is to go thru, over, under or around. She is 98 and still doing well in her own home.

  11. People that like to work will be the ones that survive, if there is a total collapse. … Rural people had to work 7 days a week, not too long ago. … All the animals needed to be watered, fed, ~milked, and put out to graze, ~ even on Sunday. … Everyone in the family had to eat on Sunday, too. Meal making was a laborious task. Fresh eggs were collected first thing. Water was fetched from the well. Clean up was done after the meal.
    Families then made the journey to Church on Sundays.

    Back in the Appalachian Mountains, many of the kitchen stoves had a reservoir tank for hot water, attached to the outside of the firebox. The extra water needed for bathing and washing clothes could be heated on top of the stove, when needed.

    The kid games were arduous. … Wikipedia has an article about ~’Hoop rolling, also called hoop trundling.’ YouTube has hoop rolling videos. … Back in the hills, during the Great Depression, the kids were still hoop rolling along the dirt roads. [Kids would run for miles.]
    … After a heavy rain, the burning of a big Hornet’s nest would turn into a group play activity. The oldest boys would hold up the long stick with a burning rag, while the rest of the kids stood close. At ignition, everyone would then take off ~ running away.
    … Kids that lived near a Rail Road line would walk the RR for miles, picking up the chunks of coal that had fallen-off of the coal trains. The coal was placed into cloth sacks. The boys carried the bigger heavy pieces of coal, as the girls would give their larger pieces to the boys to carry.

    “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven,” and Woe to those, that think they can do it all without a Creator.

  12. I remember stories my father shared about the Depression days in the copper-mining town of Ray, Arizona. The village is no longer in existence due to hundreds of feet of excavation – the Ray, AZ pit mine. The family moved there when he was nine (about 1931), due to my grandfather’s tuberculosis, and he soon died leaving dad as the ‘man of the house’ with Grandma and four siblings, surviving by any sort of job & income patchwork they could. Some memories: He described driving a lumber-yard truck – at 9 – by strapping wooden blocks to the clutch, shift and gas peddles to get enough ‘reach.’ One family tradition carried over: he worked at a local small dairy, and got to take home one pail of fresh milk each day, for the whole family. (He swore that HIS kids would always have milk in the refrigerator, and all six of us drank it for life.) Recreation? – his Boy Scout troop (with no adult leaders) would go camping in the surrounding desert hills & mountains – one boy would round up a burro for packing basic gear, someone would scrounge some beans, flour and cornmeal, and another boy would bring along a .22 rifle – for jackrabbits to flavor the bean pot. Dad was always the one called upon to slaughter cattle for the local butcher, because he knew just where to put that .22 bullet in the cow’s head for an instant kill. Critical skills he taught us as kids included shooting, camping, frugal living, handling a very tight budget (Mom, Dad & us six kids on a military officer’s pay), and most importantly, like his beloved Louis L’Amour “Sackett” novels the absolute requirement that family stands with family through rough times. He wasn’t, himself, easy to live with, but he’s greatly missed, and gave all of us siblings a great start.

  13. Fantastic (but real) article AND comments, reminding me of my grandparents raising 8 children in rural Missouri. They did all that AND helped start the local church- and never missed a Sunday morning, Sunday evening, or Wednesday evening service until they were well into their 80s. They passed on their work ethic and belief in Jesus to their children and their grandchildren, hence the family is still going strong.

  14. My mother- in- law grew up on a small farm in far east Texas during the depression, she was mainly raised by her then single grandmother. Life was very hard and food was scarce. She tells me travelers, sometimes small families, or people alone would come to their back door and ask for food in exchange for work around the farm. Her grandmother never turned anyone away and they often shared what little food they had at the same table. They were welcome to stay overnight in the barn. She says most left the next day, occasionally some would stay a little longer with a job to be completed. She has said all were very polite and extremely grateful for the kindness they were shown.
    What a different world we live in today!!

    1. TXnurse, there are still many, I say many, kind people today. I know people in the Catholic Worker Movement who offer wayfarers that same kind of charity. In my travels across this USA, I have been similarly blessed by generous people. I talked with one today, who offers me surplus from the grocery store where he works. He hates to see it being thrown out.

      We each are called by Jesus to show similar generosity to those who we encounter.

      It seems that I can hear the God of history saying, “That was not enough! But I was hungry, and ye fed me not. I was naked, and ye clothed me not. I was devoid of a decent sanitary house to live in, and ye provided no shelter for me. And consequently, you cannot enter the kingdom of greatness. If ye do it unto the least of these, my brethren, ye do it unto me.”

      Carry on

  15. Thank you for publishing this. I found it fascinating reading. My parents were born in the 1930s. One of my grandmothers kept meticulous records of everything that was spent, literally each penny, from 1930 until the end of World War 2. Skimming the ledgers provided a great perspective on prices and price increases over time.

  16. One huge difference in life without fuel and motors is that there won’t be any horses doing work. First off, there aren’t work horses in the tens of thousands, and second, even with the available horses, there is extremely little harness or functioning equipment……for even one hundredth of our existing human population.

    Makes me a bit morose, as I bought my first horse when 16 and rode for hundreds of miles and thousands of hours in WA, OR , MT, WY, CO over the decades.

    1. Wheatley Fisher, everything depends upon the providence of God. … Man has the ability to improvise, and find some solutions to the problems of life. If there was a complete collapse of civilization, the US Mail might run through the use of ~Goat Carts. It wouldn’t be as picturesque as the old John Wayne, Stagecoach movie.

      Around the world Goats still provide milk, meat, vegetation control, and people transportation (on carts). A Pastor at Church spoke about going back and visiting his home country. He said, the biggest danger he faced, while on vacation, was almost being run over by a speeding Goat Cart, one evening.

      There does seem to be a slow collapse of civilization in many countries. What were once, prosperous cities and neighborhoods in the USA and Europe, are now ‘no-go zones’ as they are dangerous places. The redoubt area may become a stronghold of peace.

      1. I appreciate your observations. For a few years we maintained our own dairy goat herd of the daddy and 5 to 7 mommas and the resultant babies so we have some experience. But there are far more guns in the US than there are goats, cats, horses.

        Read the first chapters of Judges carefully, for accuracy use a Geneva Bible. The highways were unusable due to crime. Travelers used the byways to survive. Goats and actually sheep have both been used in harness but they are very much more consumable than horses.

        Stealth animal production is the best but transportation of bull food and supplies will require groups of armed guard travels. Most probably with horses.

        1. Wheatley Fisher … You are/will be one of the experts on the use of Horses and Goats for transportation. I will not argue that point.
          [My comment was offered for humor, and how other animals can be used for transportation. +Oxen (and mules) did a lot of the heavy work hauling wagons for the early pioneers. Animals still work for people all over the world.]

          I read Judges through Chapter 7, where Gideon was speaking with God, and listening to God (Pastors say, listen to God is more important than talking to God). I didn’t see the byways section. I may have missed it. I read the Geneva Bible translation on Biblegateway (Internet).

          You’re right though, Wheatley Fisher. = The roads will be filled with outlaws and villains preying on people, if there is a collapse. [We see it now, when there is still a functioning society in the USA]
          SurvivalBlog must be right about how: = The Redoubt Area, will most likely contain a larger population of people, that understands Right and Wrong; And will act accordingly.

  17. Gosh, reading these comments are as interesting as the article! My Dad was born in 1925 and raised in Francis OK. In those days there was a train depot on the edge of town. Dad told me of seeing whole families and their dogs riding the trains headed for some better place. Probably California. There was a hobo jungle not far from the depot and Dad remembered a man showing up on their back porch one day hungry and begging for anything to eat. The family was just finishing eating but there was one biscuit left and a little bit of gravy stuck to the side of the bowl. My grandma gave it to the man and Dad set and watched him set there on their back porch and wipe the gravy from the bowl with the biscuit. I always found it funny that Dad would remember something like that.
    My Grandpa provided for the family in three ways….cutting and selling firewood, catching possums and selling their hides and making and selling moonshine. As far as I know he never got caught bootlegging. Moonshine fed his family so grandpa didn’t have a lot of respect for the government when they were butting their nose in his business. I think I may have inherited that from him.
    Their house was more like a shack and when the snow would blow Dad said he would wake up in the morning with a dusting of snow on the covers. The old tin roof had too many holes in it. In the winter all the kids would stand around the wood stove in the morning trying to warm up and a typical trick Dad would play on his brothers would be to sneak up behind them and pull their pants legs backward, causing the front super heated pant legs to burn them.
    He and his brothers had to ride a horse to school which he hated and later in life Dad could never figure out why someone would purposely want to ride a horse.
    When he got drafted in to the service during world war II it was like being on vacation. Plenty of food to eat, a warm dry place to sleep and even getting paid for it. He had second thoughts later though when the Germans were shooting at his B-24.

  18. I am not optomestic about most of America making it if food , electricity fresh water, sewage removal, etc was not avaliable. Many reading this column could make it but I know of food stamp recipients that wouldn;t know what to do with a sack of flour , yeast andwater. There are thousands that wold be helpless and take to the streets and then to the weak to get what they needed. If you couldn;t defend what you had it would be taken from you. The first month or two would be the worst.
    After Katrina i met people in my business that couldnt buy a candy bar without a credit card. They weren;t poor people they were just unprepared.

  19. Wow, do I remember my parents/grandparents recounting much of this to me as a child. I also lived part of it as I grew up in the late 40’s n early 50’s. Both parents/grandparents were farmers so we lived close to the land.

    I now live off grid in Alaska n while it is not like described for me, some of the things are quite similar. Have an outhouse n a humanure pit, water from a hand pump and we’ll, we garden or do without – mainly preparing for the future – build what we need, – and the list goes on.

    We are building some solar panels n installing a wind mill. Look forward to when they’re operational.

    Lots more I can share, but maybe I’ll just write n article n share what I’ve learned in the last couple of years.

    Rich blessings on each of you.

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